Before the invention of HSTS security policy, if a user didn’t specify the protocol in the URL, were all the initial requests sent over HTTP by default for every website?
lock at the pic dont show the background-image. i try this but not working…. background-image: url("/assets/Logo.png");
how can i fix this prblm. plz give me the solution. Thx.
My system composes of NuxtJs and AdonisJs application. Adonis handles csrf tokens for us by sending:
set-cookie: adonis-session=XXX; Path=/; HttpOnly set-cookie: XSRF-TOKEN=XXX; Max-Age=7200; Path=/; SameSite=Strict set-cookie: adonis-session-values=XXX; Path=/; HttpOnly
Now from what I can see, it will set a cookie that can be sent only by a browser. And only if the host is the same. From my understanding, from that point on, browser is the one who will auto attach cookies like that to each request. The problem is, when Nuxt application is making an API request to the back-end I do not see any csrf token being sent when looking at the traffic trough BurpSuite.
And naturally adonis will reply with "Invalid CSRF Token", and respond with status code 500.
I’m not sure what am I missing, I fail to understand why browser is not sending that cookie. And just as the extra information I’ve failed to find it trough browser’s inspector window (Storage tab). Is it possible that the cookie is not set or?
I’ve seen other posts regarding this issue, but they where not helpful because the solution was composed of reading a cookie and manually sending it as the header. Which I do not advise, and is not the model I’m going to implement. I would rather leave it to the back-end framework and browser to do the job for me, because as we all know, there would be less room for me to make a mistake.
Thank you for reading this.
I think there is a known pattern where you post the hash of a document, e.g. on Twitter, in order to have its time registered. You could then later publish the document and have it accredited for the time of the hash.
I’m sure someone gave this procedure a name. What is that name?
I found trusted timestamping, but that is a thing for digital certificates, which do not come into play here.
It is my first time asking questions, so my apologies if there is any mistakes. I sent an email to 2 addresses (2 different departments in same organization with shared @123abc.com), one bounced back from email@example.com due to ‘address not found’. I later found out it was a generated email address. Could someone please tell me if my email was successfully delivered to the other ‘good’ address (the other department)? Thank you very much for your great help in advance.
I know in TLS, the client would send a CertificateVerify message for the server to confirm the client’s identity through means such as CA but what if the client never sent this information?
Is it possible for an attacker to use this opportunity to hijack the client’s session through packet sniffing and create it’s own "pre-master secret" to communicate with the server?
Most tutorials on the net only mention sending the digital signature attached to the document, but without the digital signature certificate, it’ll be impossible for receivers to verify the signature. I’m assuming that the digital certificate is somehow sent alongside the signature but I can’t seem to find any source mentioning that.
I am trying to understand how DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH) works in both Chrome and Firefox browsers.
To do so, I have enabled DoH on each browser and set the DNS provider to Cloudflare DNS servers (
126.96.36.199), at both browser and operating system level (Windows 10 in my case).
However, the traffic captured by Wireshark shows that there are still multiple DNS request that are made in clear text:
While some of those requests are probably issued by other desktop applications that do not implement DoH, there is one request pattern which seems strange to me:
Everytime I search some text (say
foo for example) in the URL search bar and press Enter, a DNS request is made to the Cloudflare resolver with the domain name
foo.lan. Unsurprisingly, the server answers with a
No such name DNS response.
After doing some research, this behaviour actually appears to be linked with DNS prefetching.
To make sure of that, I disabled the DNS prefetch flags in both Firefox (
network.dns.disablePrefetch) and Chrome (
Use a prediction service to load pages more quickly option toggled off), but the prefetch requests are still being sent as before.
This raises three questions to me:
- Why DNS prefetch requests still occur when the feature is disabled ?
- Why are those requests made with the
.lan suffix ?
- Why DNS prefetch requests are sent in clear text even though DoH is enabled ?
Please note that I have also tried to change the default search engine from Google to Bing, but the results are unchanged.
Any help would be very appreciated.