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by: ElizaEst79
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Does Using Opaque Access Tokens Make My Server Stateful?

I am trying to understand statelessness in restful APIs in the context of authentication. Here’s the scenario:

  1. The user logs in.
  2. The server verifies the username and the password, and generates an opaque access token. It caches some information related to this token – for example, the expiration time, the userId, whether this token was explicitly invalidated before it expired, etc.
  3. The token is sent to the client, and the client sends it with every future request.

Fielding’s dissertation defines statelessness as:

“…such that each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client.”

In my example, the client is sending the token with every request, so the first condition is satisfied. However, my server has a context associated with this session that is stored in the sessions cache.

Does this make my application stateful?

If yes, then is it that true statelessness be achieved only if we are using JWTs? I am pondering upon this as JWTs are quite new, so how were architects building truly stateless services before they were invented?

How to access Web server 2012 IIS default page from Kali Linux?

I want to access the IIS default home page from Kali Linux.

Current configuration:

  • Vmware consists of Kali Linux and windows webserver 2012.
  • IIS service is running on web server (able to access localhost from browser)
  • Kali and VMware both are bridged to same adapter.
  • able to ping Webserver from Kali.

Problem Description:-

Want to access localhost of webServer from kali.

Tried :- Kali >> firefox >>

browser is returning:-

The proxy server is refusing connections  Firefox is configured to use a proxy server that is refusing connections.      Check the proxy settings to make sure that they are correct.     Contact your network administrator to make sure the proxy server is working. 

Please help.! thanx to those willing to help. 🙂

Why my swap area is set to zero in Ubuntu Server 18.04.2?

By checking the swap size in my Ubuntu server I observed that is set to zero. Since it was installed in very basic configuration from AWS EC2, I’m not sure if I had to do additional steps to adjust swap size area.

I run the following commands and got the below results :

# grep Swap /proc/meminfo    SwapCached:            0 kB    SwapTotal:             0 kB    SwapFree:              0 kB  # swapon -s   #  free -m                  total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available Mem:           7975         187        7059           0         728        7549 Swap:             0           0           0 

Is it normal to have a swap area set to zero ? If it is not, what should I do to fix it ?

Thanks !

Sqlcmd: Error: Microsoft ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server : TCP Provider: Error code 0x2746

I’m running an Ubuntu 18.10 machine and I’ve been following this tutorial: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/linux/quickstart-install-connect-ubuntu?view=sql-server-2017 I’ve been successful until I got to Connect locally section.

Every time I try this command sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -P password I get error from the title along with: Sqlcmd: Error: Microsoft ODBC Driver 17 for SQL Server : Client unable to establish connection. (it doesn’t matter if I enter right or wrong password it’s always the same error).

I’ve discovered that the problem is with -S localhost part (I also tried entering “(local)”, 127.0.0.1 and . and got same error every time), but I just can’t get it to work. I’ve been searching for solution since yesterday and everything I found didn’t work for me, so I’m putting all my hopes into this question. Thanks in advance!

EDIT: I tried entering the command above without -S localhost and it still throws same error…

EDIT 2: Tried the most upvoted solution from here AND IT WORKED!!! https://stackoverflow.com/questions/57265913/error-tcp-provider-error-code-0x2746-during-the-sql-setup-in-linux-through-te

Application throwing 500 internal server error only when i use burp

I am performing a security testing on one application. It is throwing 500 internal server error when i intercept with burp proxy. It is working fine if i turn off the proxy. I have tried the troubleshooting tips available in Burp support center (https://support.portswigger.net/customer/portal/questions/17412431-application-gives-5-internal-server-only-when-i-use-burp) but no luck. This is the first time i am observing this king of behavior. Do i need to change any settings to make burp work fine.

Thanks for your answers.

Mysql down after restarting server

I have an Ubuntu 16.04 server with ISPConfig 3.1.

For some reason, the server was working too much on a process with high load, so I restarted the PC. After that, Mysql stopped working and couldn’t be restarted anymore.

I got these messages after trying to restart the service:

Job for mysql.service failed because the control process exited with error code. See "systemctl status mysql.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details. 

systemctl status mysql.service:

● mysql.service - LSB: Start and stop the mysql database server daemon Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/mysql; bad; vendor preset: enabled) Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since jue 2019-08-22 18:58:05 -04; 41s ago Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8) Process: 12020 ExecStop=/etc/init.d/mysql stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 12056 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/mysql start (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE) 

journalctl -xe:

ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /usr/sbin/mysqld[0x955d0c] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /usr/sbin/mysqld[0x93b08e] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /usr/sbin/mysqld[0x93cd7f] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /usr/sbin/mysqld[0xa1dd9d] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /usr/sbin/mysqld[0xa670b6] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /usr/sbin/mysqld[0x9ba375] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libpthread.so.0(+0x76ba)[0x7f8ba90256ba] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: x86_64/clone.S:111(clone)[0x7f8ba84cc41d] ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: The manual page at http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/crashing.html contains ago 22 18:58:32 servidor1 mysqld[12230]: information that should help you find out what is causing the crash.   ago 22 18:58:52 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12400): Error: sql(dmiranda@comercialkod.cl,152.172.252.195): Password query failed: Not connected to database ago 22 18:58:52 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth: Error: auth worker: Aborted PASSV request for dmiranda@comercialkod.cl: Lookup timed out ago 22 18:58:52 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:58:53 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:58:54 servidor1 dovecot[904]: imap-login: Aborted login (auth failed, 1 attempts in 62 secs): user=<dmiranda@comercialkod.cl>, method=PLAIN, rip=152.172.252.19 ago 22 18:58:58 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:59:01 servidor1 CRON[12687]: pam_unix(cron:session): session opened for user root by (uid=0) ago 22 18:59:01 servidor1 CRON[12686]: pam_unix(cron:session): session opened for user root by (uid=0) ago 22 18:59:01 servidor1 CRON[12688]: (root) CMD (/usr/local/ispconfig/server/cron.sh 2>&1 | while read line; do echo `/bin/date` "$  line" >> /var/log/ispconfig/cron.log ago 22 18:59:01 servidor1 CRON[12689]: (root) CMD (/usr/local/ispconfig/server/server.sh 2>&1 | while read line; do echo `/bin/date` "$  line" >> /var/log/ispconfig/cron.l ago 22 18:59:01 servidor1 CRON[12686]: pam_unix(cron:session): session closed for user root ago 22 18:59:23 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:59:25 servidor1 su[12004]: pam_unix(su:session): session closed for user root ago 22 18:59:25 servidor1 sudo[12003]: pam_unix(sudo:session): session closed for user root ago 22 18:59:27 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:59:28 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:59:33 servidor1 dovecot[904]: auth-worker(12673): Error: mysql(localhost): Connect failed to database (dbispconfig): Can't connect to local MySQL server throug ago 22 18:59:34 servidor1 sudo[12790]: surempresa : TTY=pts/20 ; PWD=/home/surempresa ; USER=root ; COMMAND=/bin/su ago 22 18:59:34 servidor1 sudo[12790]: pam_unix(sudo:session): session opened for user root by (uid=0) ago 22 18:59:34 servidor1 su[12809]: Successful su for root by root ago 22 18:59:34 servidor1 su[12809]: + /dev/pts/20 root:root ago 22 18:59:34 servidor1 su[12809]: pam_unix(su:session): session opened for user root by (uid=0) ago 22 18:59:34 servidor1 su[12809]: pam_systemd(su:session): Cannot create session: Already running in a session 

However, I managed to restart the service after I tried the solution from this post:

Can't start MySQL server (database corruption)

So I set:

[mysqld] innodb_force_recovery = 1 

But, it doesn’t work well since some database tables are now read only.

What should I do instead? Thank you.

Do I need “New SQL Server Failover Cluster installation” to run Availability groups with manual failover?

I’m trying to set up a test environment here to learn more and apply this on our production environment.

I’ve created and installed the Windows Cluster with CLuster manager. Now I’m going to install SQL Server Enterprise 2014 on both machines and create HA with then, with availability groups. The failover will be manual. They will be in synchronized data transfer.

My question is, Can I normally install “stand-alone installarion or add…” the SQL server, or I need to use “new sql server failover cluster installation”.

I cant find anything about this on the internet.

Im going to install sql server on both nodes that will be configured in the cluster.