Should a PC get XP for assisting outside of combat?

Related, but about a PC not participating at all in a combat: Do people get XP for battles they weren't in?

Generally, experience points for a combat encounter are divided equally among the participants.

If a PC does not participate directly in a combat, but significantly contributes to the success of the party in another way, should they count as part of the combat party for the purposes of awarding XP?

For example:

  • A PC scouts out the party that the PC’s are planning to attack and relays back essential intelligence that allows the rest of the PC’s to win the combat, but then the scout PC goes on another scouting mission or does something else rather than join the actual fight.
  • A PC provides equipment, buffs, money, logistical support, diversionary tactics, or other resources to those who end up participating in the combat, but withdraws before the first round of “combat” begins. For example, a PC turns themselves in to the Town Guard and confesses to an offense. While the Town Guard is occupied in processing the PC into jail, the rest of his party attacks Town Hall.

Are these kinds of PC’s actually considered participants in the combat, even though they did not actually swing a weapon, cast an offensive spell, etc.? That is, these are PC’s that contributed, but did not specifically have any “combat rounds” where they had opportunities to take combat actions, roll dice, be wounded, etc.

If whether these roles count for XP is dependent on criteria, what differentiates an XP-worthy support role versus a non-XP-worthy support role? Could it, as @NautArch alluded to, involve whether the support PC risks their life or endures a substantial risk of being drawn into a literal round of combat (even though they successfully avoid it)? It would be more plausible, I think, to award XP to a PC who pilots a scout balloon over enemy territory and risks being shot at (even though he ends up not being shot at because the enemy does not see him as a sufficient threat because reasons), than it would be to award it to a PC who stays at home and casts buff spells on those going out.

The real life equivalents of the characters that I’m talking about here are essential elements of any real-life military, militia, or law-enforcement group – they are the drivers, transport pilots, dispatchers, mechanics, radio operators, cargo loaders, intelligence analysts, scouts, code breakers, etc. who enable the literal people on the ground with the weapons to accomplish their job.

How long should it take to travel across Barovia?

I’m running Curse of Strahd for about 5 players. The party is currently level 4 and has managed to travel all the way to Krezk from Barovia after finishing death house, at the behest of Ismark and Ireena.

I estimated travel time based on the map of Barovia provided in the module very roughly. Each hex is supposed to be 1/4 mile, and pg 28 of the module says:

Dangers abound in the land of Barovia. Check for a random encounter after every 30 minutes that the adventurers spend on the roads or in the wilderness. (Don’t check if they have already had two random encounters outdoors in the past 12 hours).

I counted roughly 70 hexes along the road from Barovia to Vallaki. This comes out to 17.5 miles, which could be covered in about 5.8 hours on foot assuming a Normal travel pace of 3 mph. At a fast pace (e.g. you were in a hurry to get the hell out of town because you stole a girl from a vampire) you’d get there in around 4.4 hours.

I went with that for the players, and they had a pretty quiet walk to Vallaki. They ran into

neither of which slowed them down since both encounters were non-combat. Per the book, I didn’t check for any additional encounters.

Anyways, by the time they got around to leaving Vallaki for Krezk the next day, I wasn’t sure if they should have been making such swift progress. I could have had Strahd or some other force arbitrarily waylay them, but I was still getting used to my big boy GM boots and didn’t want to do that. They ended up making it to Krezk that following day, where some fun stuff happened with the Abbott.

I was a little unprepared for them to make such swift progress in a single session and skip over all the hooks in Barovia and Vallaki. I did my best to keep the game going anyways, but I wasn’t sure if I was missing something either implied or outright stated in the module that should make it more difficult to walk across Strahd’s domain. I understand that Strahd himself might have made things more difficult (especially concerning Ireena), but should the overland travel itself be more arduous/take more time, given a party who sticks to traveling during the day?

Which practices should i use while generating SMS codes for auth on my project?

Let’s imagine that we have an SMS verification auth, and using random 4-digit codes, i.e. 1234, 5925, 1342 and etc.

I’m using this random inclusive algorithm on my node.js server:

function getRandomIntInclusive(min, max) {     min = Math.ceil(min);     max = Math.floor(max);     return Math.floor(Math.random() * (max - min + 1) + min); //The maximum is inclusive and the minimum is inclusive  }  const another_one_code = getRandomIntInclusive(1000, 9999); 

taken from https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/Web/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/Math/random

Seems i have range from 1000 to 9999 and have some questions about security:

  1. I’m using good algo? Maybe i need to use something better?
  2. Will it increase security if i will check previous sent code for {$ n} last minutes from db and regenerate another one if it will be same (brute same code twice case), so user always gets random 5941-2862-1873-3855-2987 without 1023-1023-2525-2525-3733-3733 case? I understand that chance is low, but anyway…

Thank you for answers!

With respect to differential privacy what should be the qlobal sensitivity for regression in non interactive mode?

I need to make a dataset differentially private on which regression, which in more general sense could be extended to learning any model, is to be performed. I need to calculate the global sensitivity for adding noise. How do I calculate global sensitivity in such cases.

In theory, should neuromorphic computers be more efficient than traditional computers when performing logic?

There is this general sentiment about neuromorphic computers that they are simply "more efficient" than von Neuman.

I’ve heard a lot of talk about neuromorphic computers in the context of machine learning.
But, is there any research into performing logic and maths in general on such computers? How would one translate arithmetic, logic and algorithms and into "instructions" for a neuromorphic computer, if there are no logic structures in the hardware itself?

It is common to draw parallels with a brain in this context, so here’s one: Brains are great at recognising faces and such, but I don’t think I can do maths faster than an Arduino (and that thing doesn’t need much energy).

Total catastrophic failure, or should a GM ever allow re-rolls and do-overs?

It’s a critical moment in the game at the end of a marathon session, everyone is on the edge of their seats, and the player rolls… a 1. Evil bad guy wins, party dies, game over. As a GM, what should you do? Probably don’t structure your game to hinge on the result of a single roll, right? Well what if it was an improbable-but-possible series of bad rolls?

Should you ever let people re-roll after failing? I’m thinking no, otherwise everybody will want to re-roll after every bad outcome.

What about letting the party start over from when they first entered the room? Just for the sake of convenience and without any sort of time reversal game mechanic.

Which magic skill should a PC use to identify a magic item?

It’s my understanding that when a PC finds a magic item, they need to use the Identify Magic exploration activity to determine what it does and how to activate it.

Page 283 of the Core Rulebook says that Arcana, Religion, Occultism, or Nature should be used depending on the tradition of the magic the PC is trying to identify. However, the magic items listed in Chapter 11 (Crafting & Treasure) don’t include a tradition – they only have a school trait (e.g. Conjuration).

I wondered if maybe Identify Magic isn’t meant to be used on magic item treasure, but page 238 does mention using it for identifying items, along with effects and locations.

How should a GM decide which skill to have a PC roll against to identify a magic item?

code in functions.php not restricting or behaving as it should be

I have written the below script to restrict users to access bbpress forums or topics. Here are the conditions:

  1. If user in not logged in will be redirected to “Join” page.
  2. If user is logged in but doesn’t have “pmpro_role_1” role, he will be redirected to “Product Page”.
  3. If a user is the administrator, he can view the page.

The problem here is for topics in forum it is working except the latest created topic. And it is taking user to “Join” page even if the user is logged in and have the “pmpro_role_1”. What is happening here?

Please help.

    add_action ('template_redirect', 'forum_security');          function forum_security(){         $  roles = wp_get_current_user()-> roles;         if(is_singular( array( 'forum', 'topic' ) )){             if(!is_user_logged_in()){                 wp_redirect('/join');                 exit;             }else{                 if(current_user_can('administrator')){                     return;                 }elseif(!in_array('pmpro_role_1', $  roles)){                     wp_redirect('/product/channel-mcgilchrist');                     exit;                 }             }                      }     }