Mini excavators: Small size, big popularity

Mini excavators are one of the quickest growing equipment types, with the machine’s popularity seemingly ever-increasing. According to data from Off-Highway Research, global sales for the mini excavator were at their highest point ever last year, at over 300,000 units.

The major markets for mini excavators have traditionally been developed countries, such as Japan and those in Western Europe, but the last decade has seen their popularity rise in many emerging economies. Most notable of these is China, which is now by far the biggest mini excavator market in the world.

Considering that mini excavators essentially replace manual labour, this is perhaps a surprising turnaround in the most populous country in the world where there is certainly no shortage of workers. Although all is perhaps not as it seems in the Chinese market – see the box out ‘China and mini excavators’ for more details.

One of the reasons for the mini excavator’s popularity is that it is easier to power a smaller and more compact machine with electricity rather than the traditional diesel power. It is the case that, especially in city centres of developed economies, there are often strict regulations regarding noise and emissions pollution.

There is no shortage of OEMs that are currently working on, or have released electric mini excavators – back in January 2019 Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) announced that, by mid-2020, it will begin to launch a range of electric compact excavators (EC15 to EC27) and wheeled loaders (L20 to L28) and stop new diesel engine-based development of these models.

Another OEM looking at electric power for this equipment segment is JCB, with the company’s 19C-1E electric mini excavators. The JCB 19C-1E is powered by four lithium-ion batteries, providing 20kWh of energy storage. This is enough for a full working shift for the majority of mini excavator customers on a single charge. The 19C-1E itself is a powerful, compact model with zero exhaust emissions at point of use and one that is considerably quieter than a standard machine.

Small machine is a relatively light and fast mechanical equipment. Like hand-held power tools, concrete vibrator, frog tamper, mini transporter, woodworking machinery, steel machinery, mini dumper, motorized dump truck, welding, etc. are all small machines.
In addition to large machinery and equipment in construction should pay attention to the safe use, to prevent injury, a variety of medium and small machines also have different degrees of danger, must be used in accordance with the safety requirements.

Going electric

JCB recently sold two models to London-based J Coffey Plant, with Coffey Plant Division Operations Manager Tim Rayner commenting, “The major benefit is no emissions at point of use. Our workers are not subjected to diesel emissions when using the 19C-1E. Confined areas are now clearer and safer to work in too, as there is no longer a need for emissions control equipment such as extraction units and ducting. The JCB electric minis bring value to the business and the industry as a whole.”

Another OEM looking at electric power is Kubota. “In recent years mini excavators powered by alternative fuel sources – such as electric – have seen a surge in popularity,” says Glen Hampson, business development manager construction at Kubota UK.

“The main driver behind this is that electric equipment gives the operator the ability to work in regulated low emission zones. Electric machinery can also enable work to be carried out in confined spaces underground without producing harmful emissions. It’s reduced noise output also makes it great for construction work in urban or heavily populated environments.”

Kubota launched a prototype electric compact mini excavator in Kyoto City, Japan, at the start of the year and Hampson adds, “At Kubota, our main priority will always be the development of machines that match the needs of our customers – the development of electric machines will allow us to do just this.”

Bobcat recently announced that it was launching a new R-Series mini excavators from 2-4 tonne with a new range of five compact excavator models: the E26, E27z, E27, E34 and E35z. One of the standout features for this range is said by the company to be the Cylinder-Inside-Boom (CIB) design concept.

According to Miroslav Konas, product manager, Bobcat Excavators Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA), “The CIB system aims to overcome what has been one of the weakest points in any mini-excavator – the vulnerability of the boom cylinder to damage such as that caused by colliding with the sides of trucks and other vehicles when loading waste and building materials.

“It does this by enclosing the hydraulic cylinder inside an extended boom structure, thus avoiding collisions with the top of the blade and the sides of vehicles. In fact, the boom structure protects the hydraulic boom cylinder in any position of its movement.”

Wood chipper is a kind of special equipment for producing wood chips, wood chipper is also called wood slicer, which is one of the wood processing series equipment.

Trenching machine, such as mini trencher, is one of the main types of construction machinery, a kind of trenching machinery used in earthwork construction, widely used in agricultural water conservancy construction, laying of communication cables and petroleum pipelines, municipal construction and military engineering, etc.

Useful tools and machines in home agriculture also include log splitter, stump grinder, etc.

Operator comfort

With the lack of skilled operators in the industry, keeping those behind the stick happy has never been more important. Volvo CE claim that the new 6-tonne ECR58 F generation compact excavator has the most spacious cab in the industry.

Operator well-being, confidence, and safety are supported through a simplified workstation and user-friendly experience. The seat-to-joystick position has been revised and improved, while still being suspended together – a technic that Volvo CE says it introduced to the industry.

Designed to offer the highest levels of operator convenience, the cab features soundproofing, numerous storage areas, and 12V and USB ports. A fully opening front window and slide side window contribute to all-around visibility and operators have an automotive style jog wheel, five inch colour display and easy-to-navigate menus.

Operator comfort is indeed important, but another reason for the general popularity of the mini excavator segment is the ever-increasing range of attachments on offer. For instance, Volvo CE’s ECR58 has a wide range of attachments which are easy to switch over, including buckets, breakers, thumbs, and the new Tilt Quick Coupler.

Talking about the mini excavator’s rise in popularity, Chris Sleight, managing director, Off-Highways Research, highlights attachments, saying, “At the lighter end, the range of attachments available mean it [a mini excavator] is often favoured over workers using hand-held air-powered tools. This is partly because this can be helpful in reducing workers’ exposure to noise and vibration, and also because it removes the worker from the immediate vicinity of the tool.”

Sleight also adds that, “In Europe and even North America the mini excavator is replacing other types of equipment. At the top end of the scale, its smaller footprint and ability to slew through 360 degrees means it is often now favoured over backhoe loaders.”

Bobcat’s Konas agrees with the importance of attachments, saying, “The various types of bucket we offer are still the main ‘tool’ from among the 25 different families of attachments we offer for our mini excavators, but we see a trend developing with more advanced hydraulic attachments growing in popularity. That’s why we developed our A-SAC system, which together with up to five independent auxiliary circuits available on our machines, we believe makes Bobcat the most advanced brand on the market to operate such complex attachments.

“Combining the arm-mounted hydraulic auxiliary lines and the optional A-SAC technology together enables a wide choice of machine customisation options to match any attachment requirement, further enhancing the role of these excavators as excellent tool carriers.”

Remote monitoring as a growing trend?

Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe) has published a white paper on the future of the compact equipment segment in Europe. In it they point out that 70% of the mini excavators sold in Europe are under three tonnes, helped by the fact that it is relatively straightforward to obtain a licence to tow one of these models on a trailer with a regular driving licence.

The White Paper predicts that remote monitoring will play an increasingly important role in the compact construction equipment market, of which mini excavators are an important part. The report says, “Tracking the location of compact equipment is particularly important, given that it moves frequently from one job site to another.

“Location and working hours data can therefore help owners, especially rental companies, with planning, enhancing efficiency and scheduling maintenance. Accurate location information is also vital from a security point of view – it’s much easier to steal a smaller machine than a larger model, and theft of compact equipment is therefore more commonplace.”

Different manufacturers offer various telematics packages with their mini excavators and mini roller; there is no industry standard. Hitachi mini excavators are connected to its remote monitoring system, Global e-Service, and the data can also be accessed via smartphone.

While location and working hours are key bits of information, the report speculates that the next-generation of equipment owners will want to view more detailed data. “Owners want access to more data from manufacturers. One reason for this is the influx of a younger, more tech-savvy generation of customers, who can better understand and analyse data to improve productivity and efficiency.”



When arriving on the scene of a fire, emergency crews have to make quick, on-the-spot decisions for approaching the situation. Arguably, one of the most crucial determinations that needs to be made is which hose lines are best suited for the circumstances. Fire severity, type of property, amount of required hose, and suppression tactics are all factors that influence what size and type of hose should be used. Choose correctly; the blaze has a better chance of being contained. Get it wrong; the situation can take a turn for the worse. Two essential hoses operated by firefighters are attack and supply hoses. In this article, the BullDog Hose team highlights why hose size matters when approaching a fire. 

Attack Lines
Attack hoses, such as BullDog’s Hi-Combat II®, Firepower II™, Ultima™, and Fireguard™, are designed to tackle fires in their beginning stages and offer flexible approaches to different types of fires. The most common attack line sizes that fire departments deploy are 1.75 inches and 2.5 inches. Both sizes have pros and cons, depending on the situation at hand. Deciding to work with one format over the other can dictate the effectiveness of the initial suppression efforts. Smaller diameter hoses require much higher pressure to move lower volumes of water.

When working with the 1.75-inch hose, it is most useful for taking on residential and vehicle fires. This hose size is much lighter and more maneuverable than the 2.5-inch line. A more compact design makes it easier for firefighters to move the line through hallways, stairwells, and small rooms. Generally, this hose can be operated by two to three firefighters and can deliver water around 140 to 200 gallons per minute (gpm). So this is the desired hose to utilize when suppressing smaller fires. Being relatively easier to manage, 1.75-inch hoses tend to be a ‘catch-all’ when first responding to a fire. If attempting to tackle larger blazes, the 2.5-inch attack hose should be fielded. 

A 2.5-inch hose line is the best choice when responding to more significant commercial buildings and exterior fires. With the ability to deliver high volumes of water at 200 to 300 gpm, this hose can take on more of the fire load than the smaller 1.75-inch attack line. The 2.5-inch hose can be more challenging to control in smaller spaces and is commonly handled by three to four firefighters. 
Supply Lines
Keeping the attack lines charged and operating at their best efficiency all depends on the supply hoses. These hoses, like BullDog’s Hi-Vol® and Hi-Vol TPU™, can be found in sizes ranging from 3 to 6 inches in diameter. The bigger supply lines move high volumes of water from hydrants and fire engines to the attack lines. With the larger diameter, supply hoses can carry more water at lower pressures. Relocating supply lines can be difficult once the water begins flowing. 
Fire fighting is one of the professions that keeps our nation thriving. But, fire departments around America have to select the best hoses every year. Budgets might change and the seasons grow warmer, but safety is of utmost importance. However, not every fire hose works the same due to the fires they have to fight. So, let’s learn about the big differences between municipal and industrial fire hoses. 

Municipal Fire Hoses
Municipal Fire Hoses are designed for fire fighting that requires kink resistance and critical water flow. Being lightweight is key, as these hoses often have to deal with shifting terrain and various on-the-job changes. While older and more standard municipal fire hoses are maximized for normal wear and tear, what about the specialty hoses?

There are a variety of municipal fire hoses on the market to solve any problem your fire department or town might be facing. Need hoses to be more cost conscious, solutions are available. What about municipal hoses needed to reach high rise or raised angle structures? There are fire hoses for that as well.

Pumping to high-rise buildings in cities vs. rural settings is also a concern faced by these same municipal fire hoses. Depending on the structures you protect, you will need to consult with your hose supplier to find out which one works the best for you. 

Industrial Fire Hoses
Industrial Fire Hoses pack a little more punch than the typical municipal fire hose. They feature far superior heat and abrasion resistance. Plus, they tend to be able to support issues concerning oil, fuel and chemicals far greater than the typical municipal fire hose. The industrial fire hoses tend to be flexible and lightweight as well. 

These fire hoses also tend to be optimized to be maintenance free. While that doesn’t mean you won’t have to take care of industrial fire hoses, it means maintenance demands will be fewer. The practical uses of the industrial fire hoses remain the same in theory. You’re going to transfer liquid, washdown areas and generally solve problems.

However, municipal fire fighting hose belong to the typical mental image you have day-to-day fire fighting. Meanwhile, industrial fire hoses are used on air strips, military bases, heavy industrial factories and related business areas. 
What kind of fire fighting hose are you going to need?
As time marches on deeper into the year and your budget deadline grows close, you will have to address your fire fighting needs. No one wants to be the person that reaches for a fire hose only not have it be suited for the purpose at hand. Whether you’re outfitting your local rural fire department or keeping an auto plant safe, you must know the differences between municipal and industrial fire hoses. 

Is there really a best fire fighting hose?
Well, it depends on the environment and overall purpose. Industrial forestry fire hose can fight all sorts of fires started by various things, but they do this in fixed environments.

Municipal fire hoses save towns money. They also are ready to suction water out of unusual water resources. Then, there is the method of actual dispersing the fire.

A municipal fire hose extinguishes a fire with limited structural damage and loss of life. The industrial fire fighting hose keeps fire from accelerating. Stopping the acceleration means it doesn’t spread to other structures that might combust in a short amount of time. The power in an industrial fire hose will keep a plane from exploding, but it also can punch holes in an unstable wall during a house fire. 

In the end, the best fire hose is determined by the purpose and the individual. Keep reading and visiting Bulldog Hose to learn more about the world of fire fighting hose. 
Fire hoses are constantly in demand in our ever-changing world. But, if you’re trying to meet a municipal budget, where do you turn? Your friends at BullDog Hose have been helping fire departments around the US and Canada discover their perfect work balance. Finding the needs to meet safety with the durable hoses that would break a fire department’s budget.

Big Hoses that don’t break the bank
When people think of fire hoses, their background changes their opinion of them. Older veteran firefighters remember the thick monstrous hoses of the 1970s that made high-rises difficult to navigate. While most fire houses have gotten rid of those bulky behemoths, what are they doing in 2021?

The answer is simple for many fire fighters and fire departments around the US and Canada. They’re struggling with big hoses from a bygone era that aren’t getting the job done. Couplings are worn or a little off. If that wasn’t enough, the same fire fighters are having to keep up with changing fire fighting standards.

What is the right size hose for fire fighting and attack?
Fire fighting and fire attack have several unique demands. First, they have to be able to be used and save lives. Second, the fire fighting hose costs can’t break the Department’s budget. Finally, they have to be perfectly adapted to fit and attack fires in the most accurate way.

The idea of big fire needs big water is traditionally heard in fire fighting. That has lead to the majority of fire departments purchasing larger hoses ala something with a 2 1/2 inch handline. While this standard was applied for years without any consideration towards fire fighting needs, the National Fire Academy found a formula to help you pick the best hose.

Length x Width / 3  x Rate of Involvement
So, let’s say you have a 25 foot length of hose and the width of a building is 40 feet that is 25% on fire.

25 x 40 = 1,000 square feet

1,000 divided by 3 is 333.3

333 x .25 = 83.25 gallons per minute.

The benefits of knowing the right size suction hose formula
The NFA formula allows fire departments to measure and understand what they need on the fly. While this is helpful for online and in-person shopping, these modern mathematic applications help your Fire Department save money. Times are tough and budgets aren’t what they used to be, but every municipality and bigger city needs fire fighting materials.

BullDog Hose has Fire Hoses for Sale
At BullDog Hose, we have many fire hoses for sale. But, which is best for you? While we’ve discussed the need to keep an eye for the best fit, provided a formula to figure out your needs and guided you in your journey…what’s next?

Examine our Top 5 hoses for Fire Departments
Attack Fire Hoses
Hi-Combat II
Supply Line Fire Hoses
General Fire Hoses
While browsing the marine hose for Sale, don’t forget to look at the Fireguards
Fireguards are a very aggressive fire hose meant for interior attack. Too often, we see Fire Departments only concentrating on their immediate needs for external fires. The special weave and flexibility of the Fire Guard aids transport and helps for specialized fire fighting. During the summer, public fire fighting statements have shown that that fireguards can assist with waterside related fire needs.

Don’t forget to check out the fire nozzles. Do you need a fog nozzle or a smoothbore nozzle?
Smoothbore nozzles have an open path from coupling to nozzle tip. If you want to create different kinds of streaming patterns, you’re going to want a fog nozzle. The traditional firefighter will find what they need with a smoothbore nozzle. However, there is an added benefit to having the ability to apply different kinds of pressure depending on what a situation needs.

You have a choice in purchasing municipal fire hose, make sure you pick the best with BullDog Hose.

Is there a tool to calculate row size and which columns would go in_row_data? [closed]

I just watched a course about how MS SQL tables are stored on the disk and a big portion of that were the IN_ROW_DATA and etc., explaining how fixed-width columns are always in teh IN_ROW_DATA and if any other overflow they get put in the OUT_ROW_DATA and etc.

The lector showed a visual aid of how you can calculate which columns would end in the IN_ROW_DATA when deisgning the table (assuming you knew what you were doing and the data it’s going to store) is there some tool or website that can show similar information before the table is created?

I was thinking of a tool/site where I enter what columns I am thinking of making and it tell me based on that how many would be in the IN_ROW, how many in the OUT_ROW, how many bites a row could take, etc.

Query RDS postgres log size

I don’t have console access, only query access to a postgres 12.5 aws rds db.

show log_destination ;--stderr show logging_collector ; --on show log_directory ; --/rdsdbdata/log/error show log_filename ; --postgresql.log.%Y-%m-%d-%H 

Is there a sql command I can run to determine the total size of all the logs in my rds instance?

Since 3 days ago website is not scrapable and auto added image size in the slug

I have a blogsite and after each post I will use other sites like pinterest to pin an image from my post. Since the 22-23th of July these sites don’t recognize images on my site. And what I noticed, all of a sudden 50% of my images automatically added the image-size at the end of the slug. Even from older posts.

-I already checked which plugin was updated after the 22nd but can’t find any related to this. -Last backup was made on the 20nd, I really don’t want to lose the data I made in these days.

Anyone have an idea what the issue is?

NDSolve::ndsz: step size is effectively zero; singularity or stiff system suspected + other warnings for system of differential equations

I’m trying to solve a set of differential equations numerically to get a 3D plot, but I am getting multiple different warnings and errors. First of all, here is the code:

ClearAll["Global`*"] tdot[\[Lambda]_, q_] := Simplify[1/(1 - 1/r)] /. r -> r[\[Lambda]] rdot[\[Lambda]_, q_] := Simplify[(1/r)*Sqrt[r^2 - q^2*(1 - 1/r)]] /. r -> r[\[Lambda]] \[Phi]dot[\[Lambda]_, q_] := Simplify[-(q/r^2)] /. r -> r[\[Lambda]] tasym[\[Lambda]_, q_] := \[Lambda] + Log[\[Lambda]] - 1/\[Lambda] + (q^2 - 2)/(4*\[Lambda]^2) + (3*q^2 - 4)/(12*\[Lambda]^3) + (-3*q^4 + 8*q^2 - 8)/(32*\[Lambda]^4) +     (-9*q^4 + 20*q^2 - 16)/(80*\[Lambda]^5) rasym[\[Lambda]_, q_] := \[Lambda] + q^2/(2*\[Lambda]) - q^2/(4*\[Lambda]^2) - q^4/(8*\[Lambda]^3) + (3*q^4)/(16*\[Lambda]^4) + (q^6/16 - q^4/20)/\[Lambda]^5 \[Phi]asym[\[Lambda]_, q_] := q/\[Lambda] - q^3/(3*\[Lambda]^3) + q^3/(8*\[Lambda]^4) + q^5/(5*\[Lambda]^5) \[Lambda]min = 0;  \[Lambda]max = 20;  \[Lambda]inf = 999;  qlist = Array[N[#1] & , 100, {-20, 20}];  maxder = 999999;  eq[q_] := {t[\[Lambda]], r[\[Lambda]], \[Phi][\[Lambda]]} /. NDSolve[{Derivative[1][t][\[Lambda]] == tdot[\[Lambda], q], Derivative[1][r][\[Lambda]] == rdot[\[Lambda], q],        Derivative[1][\[Phi]][\[Lambda]] == \[Phi]dot[\[Lambda], q], t[\[Lambda]inf] == tasym[\[Lambda]inf, q], r[\[Lambda]inf] == rasym[\[Lambda]inf, q],        \[Phi][\[Lambda]inf] == \[Phi]asym[\[Lambda]inf, q], WhenEvent[{Abs[Derivative[1][t][\[Lambda]]] > maxder ||           Abs[Derivative[1][r][\[Lambda]]] > maxder || Abs[Derivative[1][\[Phi]][\[Lambda]]] > maxder}, "StopIntegration"]},       {t[\[Lambda]], r[\[Lambda]], \[Phi][\[Lambda]]}, {\[Lambda], \[Lambda]min, \[Lambda]inf},       {"ExtrapolationHandler" -> {Indeterminate & , "WarningMessage" -> False}}][[1]] eqlist = (eq[#1] & ) /@ qlist;  tlist = eqlist[[All,1]];  rlist = eqlist[[All,2]];  \[Phi]list = eqlist[[All,3]];  surface = MapThread[{#2*Sin[#3], #2*Cos[#3], If[Abs[#3] < Pi, #1, Indeterminate]} & , {tlist, rlist, \[Phi]list}];  Show[ParametricPlot3D[surface, {\[Lambda], \[Lambda]min, \[Lambda]max}, PlotRange -> {{-20, 20}, {-30, 20}, {-30, 20}}], ImageSize -> Large] 

Running this code, with the parameters I chose after playing around with them, gives no warning message, and results in what i’m trying to get, but only half of it. For certain values of the parameters $ \lambda_{inf}$ , $ maxder$ , the warning message in the title of the question appears, however after reading other questions regarding this issue I don’t think this is too much of a problem.

The main problems start when i set $ \lambda_{min}=-30$ which would give me the other half of the plot. the first warning message that appears is

NDSolve::mxst: Maximum number of 129336 steps reached at the point [Lambda] == -0.53469.

same thing for other values of $ \lambda$ . At first I tried overcoming this by increasing MaxSteps, however this didn’t work for me as Mathematica would just use up all my RAM and my computer would stop working.

To investigate I tried to solve only for the negative values, I set $ \lambda_{min}=-30$ and $ \lambda_{max}=-5$ , and set NDSolve to solve only between $ \lambda_{min}$ and $ \lambda_{max}$ . What happens with these settings is the following warning message:

NDSolve`ProcessSolutions::nodata: No solution data was computed between [Lambda] == -30. and [Lambda] == -5..

Which is weird since I should have a solution, unless I made some dumb mistake. Reading other questions, I saw this could maybe be a case of backslide where since the solution doesn’t adhere to the new standards of NDSolve it doesn’t give any solution. However this is just speculation.

I also tried adding some methods to NDSolve with no results, since I don’t know much about them. What I hope is that by tweaking some NDSolve parameters or using some methods I can manage to get a result, so any suggestion in this direction is very welcome.

Generate Aztec triangle of size n automatically?

In the paper titled "Perfect Matchings of Cellular Graphs" by Mihai Ciucu, the Aztec triangle of size n (n= 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, ...) is equivalent to a triangular grid of n1 squares (n1 = 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ...) .

See the following example: image

Is there a automatical way to generate such patterns? (additionally, is it possiable to get the connected points into a list?)

Also are there some general method to generate Aztec diamond of order n (not just triangle)?

Thank you very much!

Database maximum size when import bacpac file using sql package

Can be specify Database maximum size when import bacpac file using sql package? Maximum size 32GB is auto sizing but my actual DB size is over 35GB. originally: DatabaseMaximumSize=(INT32).

eg. import parameter /p:DatabaseEdition=GeneralPurpose /p:DatabaseServiceObjective=GP_Gen5_2 /p:DatabaseMaximumSize=(INT60)