Do attacks that give the Grappled condition work against creatures more than 1 size larger?

Many creatures, such as the Giant Frog, have attacks that grapple on a hit:

Bite. Melee Weapon Attack: […] Hit: (1d6 + 1) piercing damage. The target is grappled (escape DC 11).

Does this grapple work against a creature Huge or larger? Usual Grapples don’t work if the target is more than one size larger than the grappler.

The target of your grapple must be no more than one size larger than you and must be within your reach.

Assets bundles have higher size than uncompressed sprites

I’ve created a script that generates assets bundles by compressing sprites using LZ4 compression. I need this in order to generate smaller files that I’ll download from a server at runtime but after taking a look at those bundles. I’ve found out that they actually have a higher size than the uncompressed sprites. For example, I’ve generated a bundle from three sprites that have a size of 201KB together, but if I take a look at its generated bundle, its size is 300KB. This is only one example, there are other bundles that are 6MB but their original files are only 500KB and that doesn’t make any sense to me. Can someone point me in the right direction?

Graph of size n with girth >2k and minimum degree more than n^1/k

I’m stuck at a proof about Graphs in the context of Graph Spanners. A Lemma says:
Let $ G$ be a graph with $ n$ vertices and $ m$ edges. If $ G$ has girth more than $ 2k$ , then $ m\leq n^{1+\frac{1}{k}}$ .
The proof is made by contradiction where repeatedly any node from $ G$ of degree at most $ \lceil n^\frac{1}{k}\rceil$ and any edges incident to that node is removed, until there is no such node anymore. This step leads to a subgraph $ G’$ of $ G$ of minimum degree more than $ \lceil n^\frac{1}{k}\rceil$ .
The conclusion is that $ G’$ must have girth at most $ 2k$ and therefore also $ G$ , which is a contradiction.

I don’t understand the conclusion: Why must $ G’$ have girth at most $ 2k$ ? Why is it not possible that $ G$ has girth more than $ 2k$ and minimum degree more than $ \lceil n^\frac{1}{k}\rceil$ ?

I don’t really see an answer to this question, so I would be very grateful if someone can help me.

Should your font size change based on size and orientation of the device?

I am created a cross platform app and I was wondering if and when fonts should scale based on the size of the screen. Also, I was wondering if the scales of fonts should change based on the orientation of the device or on very large/very wide devices.

For example, I have one screen which has the text as the main subject of the screen. This font looks a bit odd on different devices when it doesn’t scale.

On buttons, however, the font looks fine without scaling.

Also, there are certain titles that look fine with rotations and others that look atrocious.

Are there any guidelines about which, if any bits of text, should scale and based on what (ppi, size of phone)? I know the common web standard is rem, but that doesn’t exist in mobile in certain cases (including mine).

Grouping n points into groups of size m with objective to have least traveling distance in each group


  • There are “n” jobs which are distributed over the city.
  • Company has “k” available workers.
  • Each worker can do “x” jobs per day.
  • “x” is dependent to the worker skills and the distance he travels each day so it’s not a constant.
  • Workers have no initial traveling distance.
  • “s” is a set that shows each workers can do how many jobs based on the distance he travels
  • “d” is the number of days that takes for company to do all the jobs.

Objective: Minimize the “d”

I know this problem is probably NP-hard so I don’t need the exact answer. I think it’s kinda a variation of Traveling salesman problem combining with scheduling and assignment problems.

My algorithm for this problem is to “some how” efficiently ( of course not the most efficient way ) grouping the jobs based on their traveling distance in the groups in to groups of “m” which is the mean of set “s”. Then after each day rerun the algorithm to get better results.

My question is what is the best way to do that grouping? Anyway if you know a better algorithm I would be more than happy to know them.

Calculating page frame size from the physical address size

This question is in regards to the question below

The physical memory is split into physical pages (aka page frames), which have equal size. We know that the number of page frames in the physical memory equals the number of bytes in a page frame. We also know that physical addresses have 10 bits. How many bytes are in a page frame?

I am struggling with the link between physical addresses and the number of bytes in a page frame

I am correct in thinking the page frame must be the same size as the physical memory. Given that the physical address is 10 bits am I correct in saying

2^10 = 1KB = 1000 Bytes?

Pathfinder: Creating a Vehicle of Unusual Size (Medium)

Specific Questions

  1. Are there any mechanics for custom vehicles in the paizo rules?

  2. Are there any vehicles of medium or smaller size in the paizo rules?

  3. Are there any enhanced rules tied to piloting/driving a vehicle outside of Ultimate Combat?

  4. Are there any mechanics on disguising a vehicle/object that would make sharing a disguise with one explicitly follow other rules or be potentially invalid?

I am seeking guidance on how to bring the home-brew vehicle below more in line with the mechanics and rules in the official materials. I’m giving too much detail (probably) in the hopes it helps catch things I failed to ask explicitly.

Acknowledging the other pathfinder vehicle threads I benefited from reading.

Rules on damaging vehicles were discussed here. Additional vehicles tied to the high seas were discussed here. Some 3.5e vehicle details were brought up here.

All three were insightful, though they didn’t answer my questions above.

A Vehicle of Unusual Size (and Design)

I’m attempting to answer my own rules question best I can, but I do want help making sure I got this all right.

I’m specifically attempting to make a vehicle that fits into a single square and is Medium sized.

Any vehicle that takes up 2 or more squares is already covered by the rules. Nothing goes into Medium. The rules also give some details on how a vehicle might be altered, and on what statistics to track, but don’t explicitly play out how mechanics might combine. Here is my best attempt at hitting all those details.

Since something occupying 1 square is typically Medium sized or smaller, I am treating a 1 square vehicle as Medium sized. I wish there were explicitly a Medium vehicle to reference in the rules, but there isn’t one I saw.

But… Why?

I’ve drafted up a vehicle inspired by three goblins trying to fit in a trenchcoat. You can judge me.

The base cost is being assumed at 250gp, based on the costs worked into other vehicles for similar features, including Smuggler’s Wagon at medium effectiveness. I would love something more reliable as a measure. There was no way to be sure this was exactly right.

The enhanced version I included has that cost doubled based on a Smuggler’s Wagon at high concealment. The enhanced vehicle is also made of Mithral, and the cost for that is based off the +9,000gp cost for a suit of heavy armor. There were no ‘weight’ statistics on vehicles to do it by pound.

Another rule of interest: Creatures propulsion can be in teams. I didn’t find any other rules that refer to the concept of teams, to verify it working for pushing a vehicle.

The Person Suit

Medium land vehicle

Squares 1 (5 ft. by 5 ft.;6 feet high); Cost 250 gp (Basic), 9,500 gp (Enhanced)


AC 10; Hardness 0 (basic), AC 10; Hardness 15 (enhanced)

(The base AC is based on the size, and doesn’t factor in the driver’s skill. Hardness is inherited from the material)

hp 15 (7) (basic), 30 (14) (enhanced) (Determined by the size and material)

Base Save +0 (This bonus was entirely random in the sample entries, so I left it alone)

Defensive Abilities bounce, disguised?, compact


Maximum Speed 60 ft. (muscle); Acceleration 15 ft. (muscle) (Reviewing existing vehicles, all pushed vehicles with 1+ crew dedicated to movement per 1 square of space had these statistics)

CMB +0; CMD 10 (This is based on the vehicle size)

Offensive Abilities armed, about face


This appears to be a vaguely barrel-shaped medium-sized humanoid, covered in a long robe and low-sitting wide-brimmed hat that obscure them from top to bottom from view. Enhanced versions are more convincingly humanoid, but both versions move unnaturally as if riding along on wheels and small sets of feet. Creatures inside The People Suit gain either total cover (the crew) or cover (the driver).

Propulsion muscle (pushed; 2 Small creature)

Driving Check Profession (driver)

Forward Facing The direction in which the vehicle last moved

Driving Device a single lever combined with leaning to tilt the vehicle

Driving Space the top deck of the space; the lever extends through all decks

Crew 2

Decks 3

Bounce (Ex) The Person Suit is constructed to be springy and easy to maneuver, which deprives it of the force and impact of a standard vehicle. The Person Suit is treated like a creature if impacted by another vehicle, and cannot perform vehicle maneuvers. The Person Suit can be targeted by any maneuver that forces movement as if it were a creature, and accelerates or decelerates based on the movement inflicted in the direction chosen.

Disguised? (Ex): The Person Suit is not all it seems, and this grants it certain benefits. The Person Suit may be used as part of a medium-sized disguise for the driver, negating the size penalty on the check. The Person Suit may also attempt stealth checks, using the stealth skill of the driver. Whenever The Person Suits moves, everyone nearby receives a +10 to perception to overcome the disguise or stealth check. This bonus is reduced to +5 for the Enhanced version.

Compact (Ex): The Person Suit is designed to fit three small creatures in cramped conditions. A medium or larger creature cannot fit inside of this vehicle to use it. Should a creature inside the vehicle suddenly increase in size, the vehicle falls apart and spills the crew and driver out in a three space line. It takes ten minutes to reassemble the vehicle should this happen.

Armed (Ex): The Person Suit has two arm-like appendages that can be equipped with a one-handed melee weapon and a shield, or two one-handed melee weapons. If given a shield, the shield’s bonuses apply to the vehicle. If given one or more weapons, a special attack maneuver may be attempted by the driver as a standard action. All adjacent creatures of medium size or larger must make a Reflex Save vs (10+1/2 Profession(driver) ranks+Wis) or take damage from all of the held weapons. Weapon enhancements do not increase the DC of this attack, but do apply to any damage dealt.

About Face (Ex): The driver may change the facing of the vehicle on their turn as part of an accelerate check. This does not change the direction in which the vehicle was moving previously, and attempting to accelerate in the opposite direction of ongoing movement is treated as a decelerate check. Because of the unorthodox way in which a People Suit can swivel and change the direction of the body, it receives +4 to AC against attacks of opportunity triggered by movement.