If I cast Darkness at 4th level and someone else casts Daylight at 4th level, how do the two spells interact?

If I cast Darkness at 4th level and someone else casts Daylight at 4th level, how do the two spells interact?

I found this Twitter post by Jeremy Crawford back in October 2014 that says the spell does not get stronger when upcast, but as is written in the Player’s Handbook (p. 201):

When a spellcaster casts a spell using a slot that is of a higher level than the spell, the spell assumes the higher level for that casting.

Therefore, if we both cast Darkness and Daylight at 4th level, they do not dispel each other – but how would they interact when they meet each other?

Can someone in Cyber Security or IT help answer this basic question on the change of today’s malware? [closed]

1.) Before the most common types of malware were usually trojan horses and various other types of viruses derived from one’s own e-mail on a desktop. Given the timespan since those days, the game has changed. Today ways of breaching a user’s data have changed drastically. What are the most prevalent methods that an average person should be aware of today?

Rage benefits for someone who doesn’t attack

I’ve had in mind a character built around defensive and supernatural effects from rage, who doesn’t attack.

Towards this end, I’m using druidic avenger to actually get rage. I’ll take both Blazing Berserker (Sandstorm) and Frozen Berserker (Frostburn) to gain both fire and cold immunity, and Instantaneous Rage (Complete Warrior) to ensure I’m always raging when I need to be.

Extra Rage (Complete Warrior) is obvious.

Other defensive benefits include Ettercap Berserker (Unapproachable East) for a larger Consitution bonus, and Mad Foam Rager (Player’s Handbook II) for delaying the effects of one spell or ability used against me for a round.

Intimidating Rage (Complete Warrior) and various Intimidate optimization tricks are one non-attacking application of rage, and a likely choice here. Still, Intimidate has serious limitations, and druid isn’t a Charisma-based class (though that may matter somewhat less).

Druid spells are great, but can’t be cast while raging without cheesing my way into rage mage (Complete Warrior). So maybe totemist (Magic of Incarnum) would be thematic, and leverage the high Constitution well? Cobalt Rage (idem) is a pretty good feat, after all, and while totem rager (idem) is somewhat lackluster, totem rage certainly fits the bill pretty well. Could maybe do some weird thing where I hit sapphire hierarch too (idem)?

Having written this answer, I’m pretty familiar with other options, like frostrager’s natural armor (Frostburn) and wildrunner’s Dexterity (Races of the Wild), but those aren’t great answers here: natural armor is poor and the frostrager is a huge pain to enter, and the wildrunner’s Dexterity is largely wasted on a character that won’t be attacking with that Dexterity.

And there is stuff I technically can’t get if I go the druidic avenger route. Resilient rage (Dragon vol. 330) would be really nice, but you have to be an implacable barbarian to get it. Ferocity (Cityscape “Urban Class Features” web enhancement) is nice too, but again, technically, that’s a substitution level. Spells and wild shape more than make up for those, but it’s good to be aware of them.

So, can you recommend to me any other rage features that have substantial benefits when not attacking? Defensive benefits, non-attack offense, utility, whatever. Supernatural stuff is great.

All D&D 3.5e Wizards-published materials, as well as Dragon and Dungeon, are valid. Level must be pre-epic, but otherwise doesn’t matter, since I’ll build towards things I cannot currently take. Race and other restrictions should be mentioned, but a lot of “fluff” requirements will be waived so that should be no impediment. The key thing is the options must be

  1. activated by raging, or active during a rage, or in some way tied to the raging status,

  2. provide benefits even when the raging character is not attacking.

I might be convinced to back-port something from Pathfinder, but the Pathfinder barbarian, chained or unchained, as well as the rage powers, are not going to be. It has to be somethat that makes sense with the 3.5e rage, so probably a feat.

Since this answer was kind of rambling, everything mentioned in this question:

  • Cityscape: ferocity (“Urban Class Features” web enhancement)
  • Complete Warrior: Extra Rage, Instantaneous Rage, Intimidating Rage, rage mage
  • Dragon magazine: implacable barbarian (vol. 330)
  • Frostburn: Frozen Berserker, frostrager
  • Magic of Incarnum: Cobalt Rage, totem rager, sapphire hierarch
  • Player’s Handbook II: Mad Foam Rager
  • Races of the Wild: wildrunner
  • Sandstorm: Blazing Berserker
  • Unapproachable East: Ettercap Berserker
  • Unearthed Arcana: druidic avenger

Can someone verify the correctness of this Candidate-Elimination exercise?

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My attempt:

Step 0: GH: {< ?,?,?,? >}, SH: {< ∅,∅,∅,∅ >}

Step 1: GH: {< f,?,?,? >, < ?,t,?,? >, < ?,?,t,? >, < ?,?,?,f >}, SH: {< ∅,∅,∅,∅ >}

Step 2: GH: {< ?,?,t,? >, < ?,?,?,f >}, SH: {< t,f,t,f >}

Step 3: GH: {< ?,?,t,? >, < t,?,?,f >}, SH: {< t,f,t,f >}

Step 4: GH: {< ?,?,t,? >}, SH: {< t,f,t,? >}

Step 5: GH: {< ?,?,t,? >}, SH: {< t,?,t,? >}

The versionspace are exactly those GH and SH of the last step.

At what point is someone, who has attempted to hide, considered to be hidden?

Inspired by discussion in the comments on this question.

Successfully hiding is normally the result of a ‘contest’ sometimes known as an ‘opposed check’. The person attempting to hide makes a Dexterity (Stealth) roll contested by the Wisdom (Perception) of the person who may or may not be able to see them.

In the case of a tie between these two rolls:

the situation remains the same as it was before the contest. Thus, one contestant might win the contest by default.

How should this ruling be applied with regards to hiding? If, in the event of a tie, ‘the situation remains the same as it was before the contest’ does that always means the hider has failed to hide? Or can it sometimes mean the hider stays hidden?

Consider the following scenarios (assume hiding is possible and allowed by DM in each and that hider has rolled 15 on stealth):

  1. Hider is chased through a fairly dense forest, gets a little distance between them and their pursuer and attempts to hide. The chaser quickly approaches their hiding place, with a perception check of 15, tieing their stealth roll – result: they failed to hide successfully and are spotted.

  2. Hider is chased through a forest by multiple pursuers, one pretty observant but unfit, one moderately fit but a bit of a daydreamer. The hider, as in scenario 1, gains a little distance on their pursuer and attempts to hide. First on the scene is the Daydreamer, with a perception check of only 12 they blunder straight on, past the hider, deeper into the undergrowth – the hider has successfully hidden from them. Seconds later, the more Observant, but less fit, pursuer comes panting and puffing into view and with their perception check of 15 they tie the hider’s stealth roll. What happens next?

    a. Does the hider remain hidden? We’ve already had an opposed check which has concluded that they have successfully hidden. So, if we resolve the tie by the situation ‘remaining the same’ then does that mean the hider remains hidden? That would mean that the pursuer’s chances of finding their quarry had been actively harmed, rather than helped by their companion. Their chance of finding him is now 5% worse.

    b. Or, is the hider discovered? Can we argue that the first contested check is entirely unrelated to the second? The first situation has resolved that the hider is hidden with respect to the Daydreamer. But in the second check the hider (with the same stealth roll) is attempting to hide from someone different. With respect to the observant pursuer they have failed to successfully hide and so are spotted.

Finally, is the result of any of the above scenarios changed if the amount of time that elapses between actions (hiding v. percieving) is lengthened?

Will someone die for your SYNs?

I have, uhm … some kind of “port scanning” going on on my WAN. I dunno what to do with the packages. My hope was to get a solution for “Das Rätsel” ™. Something like a bible verse or some soup recipe. Instead I took random bits of the packets and assembled them to get the following:

“Als die SYNs alle waren, mussten wir sie mit SYN,ACKs kaputtschlagen.”

What now? I dont think Greta likes that. Packet generation costs energy, hence CO2 (unless regrettable energy stuff, you know). I didn’t calculate the number but I’m sure it is some specific amount. Your kids will pay zhe bills! Should at least plant a tree for each packet.

I also did some research and turns out marrying a Babushka and moving to Siberia would be an option. But it’s cold there (which I like). For PPPOE research turned up there is no real solution and it gets worse by the day. Maybe I need a key for this telco box in the basement. Not sure if it helps. Rather unlikely. Also need to be CEO of Vodafone first to get the key. Also other stuff could help but …

How does a TPM inform me that someone has tampered with the BIOS under Linux / Ubuntu?

I read guides on how to set up a TPM but none of them tells me how a TPM actually works in practice (under Linux/Ubuntu which I use).

My understanding is that a TPM can inform me whether any of the components which load before the main operating system (Bios, bootloader, firmware) have changed in any way since the TPM was activated.

But how exactly would I know whether something has actually changed? If someone (an attacker) has tampered with with the BIOS or some firmware component, will the next boot process simply not complete? If that is correct, will the system boot successfully again, if I manage to put the BIOS back into the state that is known to the TPM?