## How do you prevent HTML special character coding from displaying on a website?

An article in the Wall Street Journal (wsj.com) displays HTML special character code instead of the actual character, the greater-than sign. Thus, instead of displaying >, the article displays &gt;. This occurs (for me, at least) on Chrome, Firefox, and Safari (all latest versions with cache cleared).

My (limited) understanding is that websites should have the following code in the header:

<meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> [α] 

The wsj.com site has this code in the header: <meta charset="UTF-8">. Is this the cause of the problem? In other words, if the WSJ site had <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" /> in the header, would we see > instead of &gt;?

The Wall Street Journal article is:

• Stern, Joanna. "iOS 14 Review: Your iPhone Will Look Completely Different Now, if You Want." Wall Street Journal (16 September 2020).

The article is probably behind a firewall, so here is an image of the sentence as it appears in the article:

TIA,

Mark

Footnote
α. Kyrnin, Jennifer. "How to Use Special Characters in HTML." Lifewire (20 February 2020).

## Remove special characters in a URL

I need a help to prevent special characters in URL & it should redirect to 404 error page, if anyone specifically entered characters. I tried couple of ways through .htaccess but none of them worked.

Expected URL: http://www.abcd.com/ar/shop-listing/health-beauty/ but still I can see the page if I entered like http://www.abcd.com/ar/shop-listing/health-beauty~@/#$&&&%%$ %3Cscript%3E/

Can anyone suggest a best solution to approach this issue?

## What steps can I do if I know that someone[Goverment, Special agents,..etc] is spying on me?

if I know someone is trying to spying on me, and he/they tracking me on both online and reality, what steps can I do to neutralize the risk? keep in mind, that I’m a normal person with limited resources.

these steps comes in mind:

1. Setup & use a self-hosted VPN service(to prevent ISP as Man-in-The-Middle and prevent DNS Leaks), on trusted hosting provider.
2. Encrypt all my emails with PGP keys, and make sure that the usage of PGP keys is the default.
4. Encrypt the full disk of my computer.

in general, I think of:

1. Securing the communication on the internet (using VPN, fake identity, PGP Keys..etc).
2. Securing the data on devices by encryption, and add authentication layers.

is there something more I miss?

## Can lists be defined in a special way so that they contain things of different type?

In https://www.seas.harvard.edu/courses/cs152/2019sp/lectures/lec18-monads.pdf it is written that

A type $$\tau$$ list is the type of lists with elements of type $$\tau$$

Why must a list contain elements of the same type? Why can’t it contain elements of different types?

Is there a way of defining a list polymorphically in the typed lambda calculus, so that it takes elements of any type?

Can we then use the List monad on lists, defined polymorphically?

## Combinatorial Problem similar in nature to a special version of max weighted matching problem

I have a problem and want to know if there is any combinatorial optimization that is similar in nature to this problem or how to solve this special version of the max weight matching problem.

I have a general graph $$G(\mathcal{V},\mathcal{E},\mathcal{W})$$. I want to find a maximum weight matching of the graph $$G$$ that must cover a certain subset of vertices and has a specific size. For example, if I have a graph with eight vertices, I want to find a max weighted matching that must cover the subset of vertices $$\mathcal{V}’=\{1,2,3\}$$ and the size of the matching is $$\lceil{|\mathcal{V}’|/2}\rceil$$. So one more vertex needs to be chosen that maximizes the weighted matching. How to find the optimal solution in polynomial time if possible?

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## Number of words of length n for special language

Let $$\Sigma$$ be an alphabet and let $$L$$ be a language over it with the following properties:

1. if $$w\in L$$ then there exists $$v\in \Sigma^*$$ such that $$wv \in L$$ and for every $$s\in \Sigma$$ the word $$wvs$$ does not lie in $$L$$
2. $$wv\in L$$ then $$vw \in L$$
3. It is prefix-closed, i.e. prefix of any word is still in the language.

Note that by the definition, it is not cyclic language. I’m trying to compute its growth function, by that I mean $$\gamma_n:= |\{w\in L \mid |w| = n\}|$$. I know about my specific case that it is not regular and my hypothesis is that function $$\Gamma(x) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \gamma_nx^n$$ is not rational. However, I couldn’t find any information about these functions for non-regular languages. Maybe, there’s a formula that connects entropy of language, i.e. $$e(L):= \limsup\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{\log\gamma_n}{n}$$ and the $$\Gamma$$ function. Or for such a language there’s a way to describe its growth throughout the growth of the language $$\operatorname{End}(L) = \{ w\in L \mid \forall s\in \Sigma \,ws \text{ is not in } L \}$$.

## What does Detect Magic show for different Warlock special weapons?

For reference, Detect Magic snippet:

you can use your action to see a faint aura around any visible creature or object in the area that bears magic, and you learn its school of magic, if any.

Warlocks have a few unique weapon options. I am interested in what exactly does Detect Magic show for the following?

1. A weapon created via the basic Pact of the Blade feature
2. Magic weapon transformed to Pact of the Blade weapon (via the ritual), compared to before the ritual
3. Pact of the Blade’s Improved Pact Weapon (feat) and its created weapon with +1 to hit and damage
4. Hexblade’s chosen weapon, by touching a normal weapon after a long rest
5. Hexblade’s chosen weapon, by touching a magical weapon after a long rest, compared to before choosing it

(Meta-note: I could make this 5 separate questions, but I think answer is so short, that it’s better to have this all in one place. But let me know if I really should split it up.)