Must a Ranger’s spellcasting focus be druidic, or can it be arcane (or even holy)?

This question was inspired by the question about what constitutes a bardic spellcasting focus. It has been somewhat overcome by Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything (p. 57) which explicitly describes a Ranger’s Spell focus as a druidic focus, but since not all tables will use that optional rule the question will remain up.

A Ranger’s spellcasting ability is described thusly:

By the time you reach 2nd level, you have learned to use the magical essence of nature to cast spells, much as a druid does.

As discussed here, a Ranger meets the definition of a spellcaster in that a class feature, not an item, grants the character the ability to cast spells. While that would support a Ranger using a spellcasting focus, only three spellcasting foci get explicit treatment in the rules (unless I missed a spot).

  • A Holy Symbol (Basic Rules p. 48.)
  • A Druidic Focus (Basic Rules p. 48.)
  • An Arcane Focus (Basic Rules p. 47.)

Aside: I may be making a leap. The text on druidic focus does not mention Rangers. The leap is based on the Ranger class spellcasting feature being explicitly tied to druidic spellcasting in the brief text covering that class feature.

  • Spellcasting Focus:

You can use a druidic focus (see “Equipment as a spellcasting focus for your druid spells).

  • Druidic Focus.

A druidic focus might be a sprig of mistletoe or holly, a wand or scepter made of yew or another special wood, a staff drawn whole out of a living tree, or a totem object incorporating feathers, fur, bones, and teeth from sacred animals. A druid can use such an object as a spellcasting focus.

In a case of specific over general, Paladins and Clerics are called out as being able to use a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus (Rangers were left out). This left me with two questions, only one of which is germane to the Ranger2. The Ranger gets no specific call out (unlike the Paladin) on whether the character can use for a spellcasting focus a holy symbol, a druidic focus, or an arcane focus. (Since the Ranger is a spellcaster, there’s got to be something that the class can use to substitute for material components, right?)

Why would this matter?

A lot of Ranger spells have material components. Just reviewing the SRD (which isn’t the whole list) the following spells calling out "V,S,M" in the components line:
Level 1
Alarm, Animal Friendship, Detect poison and disease, Goodberry, Jump, Longstrider
Level 2
Animal Messenger, Barkskin, Darkvision, Locate Animals or Plants, Locate Object, Pass without a trace, Spike Growth
Level 3
Nondetection, Water Breathing, Water Walk, Wind Wall
Level 4
Conjure Woodland Beings, Freedom of Movement, Locate Creature, Stoneskin
Level 5
Commune with Nature

The adventuring Ranger won’t always be in a "home" environment

Considering that terrain types generally coincide with Druid Circles …

Arctic, Coast, Desert, Forest, Grassland, Mountain, Swamp (I’d call seaborne adventure close enough to Coast for these purposes)

… it might be impossible to find mistletoe in the desert when a material component is needed.

Question restated

Can the Ranger use an arcane focus or a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus, or is the ranger constrained to the druidic focus (a holly symbol1?) based on the class’ spell casting feature being heavily druidic in nature1?


1 Please excuse the puns. Sometimes we can’t help ourselves.
2 I leave the idea of druids being priest of nature (mostly gotten around with Nature Domain clerics) for another question regarding a holy symbol as a spellcasting focus for a druid.

Does the Artificer’s Spell-Storing Item effectively bypass the bonus action spellcasting rule?

The rule on Bonus Action Casting Time states:

A spell cast with a bonus action is especially swift. You must use a bonus action on your turn to cast the spell, provided that you haven’t already taken a bonus action this turn. You can’t cast another spell during the same turn, except for a cantrip with a casting time of 1 action.

This would ordinarily prevent you from casting a levelled spell and a bonus action spell on the same turn; however, the Artificer’s Spell-Storing Item states:

[…] While holding the object, a creature can take an action to produce the spell’s effect from it, using your spellcasting ability modifier. […]

Furthermore, the following question’s highest-scoring answer states:

  • Do class or subclass features that relate to spellcasting apply when producing a spell's effect from an Artificer's Spell-Storing Item?

[…] The user never casts the spell either. They merely use a (special, unnamed) action to produce the spell’s effects. They don’t cast it and don’t get to modify it with their features which care about them casting a spell. […]

And the Sage Advice Compendium even states (page 3):

Q. Which action is used to activate a Spell-Storing Item?

A. Activating a Spell-Storing Item uses the Use an Object action.

Does this mean that a caster could use a Spell-Storing Item, creating the effects of any 1st or 2nd level Artificer spell with a casting time of 1 action, and then use their bonus action to cast any (bonus action) spell?

Does a PF2e spellcaster who takes multiclass dedications into other spellcasting classes, and related spellcasting feats, gain more spell slots?

Ezren is a level 10 evocation wizard, and hence would have spell slots of the following levels:

+-------------+-----------------+ | Spell level | Number of slots | +-------------+-----------------+ |           1 |               4 | |           2 |               4 | |           3 |               4 | |           4 |               4 | |           5 |               4 | +-------------+-----------------+ 

However, at level 2 Ezren took the Sorcerer multiclass dedication. At level 4 he took Basic Sorcerer Spellcasting, and Bloodline Breadth at level 8.

How many spell slots does Ezren have in a given day? Is it:

+-------------+-----------------+ | Spell level | Number of slots | +-------------+-----------------+ |           1 |               6 | |           2 |               6 | |           3 |               6 | |           4 |               4 | |           5 |               4 | +-------------+-----------------+ 

Because at level 8, spellcasting archetype feats grant an additional spell slot of first, second and third level, AND the bloodline breadth feat increases each of these by one?

Or do these sources of spell slots not stack for some reason? Coming from fifth edition, a wizard who multiclasses sorcerer still has the same number of spell slots as a pure wizard, so I’d like to clarify my understanding here.

Is it worthwhile for my Mastermind to dip into spellcasting for Shadowblade?

I am playing a Mastermind rogue in a campaign I do not expect to last beyond 6th level. I am interested in acquiring spellcasting ability of some sort, primarily for Silent Image (1st level) and Shadowblade (2nd level).

Does taking 2-3 levels in Wizard (or another caster class) make up for the loss in rogue levels? (As far as damage + utility) I know that if I take War Mage, I’m losing out a potential 1d6 of Sneak Attack Damage, an ASI, and Uncanny Dodge in exchange for Arcane Deflection, and initiative bonus, and Level 2 spellcasting.

Oftentimes, I hear that rogue’s progression is so linear that it never makes sense to stop taking rogue levels. Are there any alternative goodies I could pick up in a max level 6 campaign?

Does the verbal component for spellcasting have to be words?

To make a long story short: for my first D&D campaign, I want to create a warlock that had to give up her voice as a part of her deal with her Patron.

As such, she is incapable of speaking, but she can still produce sounds with her mouth. I was wondering if that would incapacitate her from casting spells with a Verbal component.

Do spells needs a specific phrase to be cast, or does gibberish work?

Does the Mind Flayers Innate Spellcasting (Psionics) trigger the melee weapon attack granted by the Mage Slayer feat?

While searching for an answer i found this and this question about counterspelling a Mind Flayer. Which does not work because Counterspell states in it’s reaction trigger:

when you see a creature within 60 feet casting a spell

and the Mind Flayers Innate Spellcasting tells us:

It can cast the following spells, requiring no components

So we know, Counterspell does not work because a Mind Flayers spellcasting is not observable.

However Mage Slayer reads like this:

When a creature within 5 feet of you casts a spell, you can use your reaction to make a melee weapon attack against that creature.

RAW this seems to mean, that a Mind Flayer triggers that melee weapon attack because Mage Slayer does not require you to see the spellcasting. This feels wrong to me because there is no way to even tell the mind flayer casted a spell except the spells effect which might be observable (levitate) or not (detect thoughts).

Is there some kind of ruling, that i am missing?

Inconsistent spellcasting benefits from prestige classes?

Am I reading these rules right? There seem to be some strange inconsistencies in the benefits some prestige classes grant to the base spellcasting class. Here are some examples, all from the 3.5 DM’s Guide (although the inconsistencies continue in other rulebooks).

Archmage (page 178) buffs spells per day and spells known, but doesn’t mention caster level:

When a new archmage level is gained, the character gains new spells per day (and spells known, if applicable) as if he had also gained a level in whatever arcane spellcasting class in which he could cast 7th-level spells before he added the prestige class level. He does not, however, gain any other benefit a character of that class would have gained (bonus metamagic or item creation feats, and so on).

Eldritch Knight (page 188) buffs spells per day and caster level but doesn’t mention spells known:

From 2nd level on, when a new eldritch knight level is gained, the character gains new spells per day as if she had also gained a level in whatever arcane spellcasting class she belonged to before she added the prestige class. She does not, however, gain any other benefit a character of that class would have gained (bonus metamagic or item creation feats, bard or assassin abilities, and so on). This essentially means that she adds the level of eldritch knight to the level of whatever other arcane spellcasting class the character has, then determines spells per day and caster level accordingly.

Loremaster (page 191) buffs all 3: spells per day, known, and caster level:

A loremaster continues training in magic as well as her field of research. Thus, when a new loremaster level is gained, the character gains new spells per day (and spells known, if applicable) as if she had also gained a level in a spellcasting class she belonged to before she added the prestige class. She does not, however, gain any other benefit a character of that class would have gained (improved chance of controlling or rebuking undead, metamagic or item creation feats, and so on). This essentially means that she adds the level of loremaster to the level of some other spellcasting class the character has, then determines spells per day, spells known, and caster level accordingly.

The possibility of prestige classes that buff all 3 is especially odd in the context of Sorcerers; I see no reason to continue leveling Sorcerer once you qualify for a prestige class. A Sorcerer 10/Loremaster 10 character gets the same spells per day, known, caster level, HD, base attack bonus, and saves (actually, slightly better Will) as a Sorcerer 20, in addition to the Loremaster class features. (By contrast, Wizards get bonus feats, which they’d give up by pursuing Loremaster.)

I misunderstanding the rules somehow?

How does spellcasting interact with Improved Duplicity?

Trikery Clerics get this Channel Divinity option : Invoke Duplicity.

Starting at 2nd level, you can use your Channel Divinity to create an illusory duplicate of yourself. As an action, you create a perfect illusion of yourself that lasts for 1 minute, or until you lose your concentration (as if you were concentrating on a spell). The illusion appears in an unoccupied space that you can see within 30 feet of you. As a bonus action on your turn, you can move the illusion up to 30 feet to a space you can see, but it must remain within 120 feet of you. For the duration, you can cast spells as though you were in the illusion’s space, but you must use your own senses. Additionally, when both you and your illusion are within 5 feet of a creature that can see the illusion, you have advantage on attack rolls against that creature, given how distracting the illusion is to the target.

Which upgrades when they reach a high level : Improved Duplicity.

At 17th level, you can create up to four duplicates of yourself, instead of one, when you use Invoke Duplicity. As a bonus action on your turn, you can move any number of them up to 30 feet, to a maximum range of 120 feet.

How does spellcasting interact with Improved Duplicity ? In other words, could the spell originate from multiple (perhaps all four) duplicities at the same time, or only one ? I suppose only one, but it’s best to check.

Is a creature’s Innate Spellcasting save DC affected by changing ability scores or adding Spellcasting features from another creature?

I’m creating a Svirfneblin Evil Mage by combining the stat blocks for each Evil Mage and Svirfneblin.

A Svirfneblin’s Innate Spellcasting Save DC is 11 and its INT is +1. An Evil Mage’s Spellcasting Save DC is 13 and its INT is +3.

I’m taking the abilities from Evil Mage and Svirfneblin and taking the higher ability scores (and modifiers), does the increased INT modifier from the Evil Mage’s score affect the Innate Spellcasting spell save DC?

Spellcasting for sorcerer

So I’m playing a sorcerer and I realized I might have the spell slots understood wrong.

For simplicity’s sake, say I only have one level 1 spell slot. After a long rest, do I have to prepare one spell (say it’s magic missile) that I can use during the day (meaning throughout the day, I can use only magic missile), or can I just use absolutely any spell as long as it fits the criteria (i.e. it’s only one level 1 spell)?