Why You Need to Swap Out Your Galvanized Pipes

What are galvanized pipes?

Galvanized pipes are steel pipes that have been dipped in a protective zinc coating to prevent corrosion and rust. Galvanized steel pipe was commonly installed in homes built before 1960. When it was invented, galvanized pipe was an alternative to lead pipe for water supply lines. Today, however, we have learned that decades of exposure to water will cause galvanized pipes to corrode and rust on the inside.

What do galvanized pipes look like?

When first installed, galvanized pipes looks similar to a nickel in color. But as it ages, galvanized pipe may appear much duller, lighter, or darker, depending on its environment. We’ve also seen homes where the water pipes have been painted, so it can be difficult to tell at first glance.

How can I tell if I have galvanized pipes?

If you can’t tell by looking at your pipes, there is a quick test to tell if they are galvanized. Simply grab a flat head screwdriver and a strong magnet. Start by finding your water line and scratch the outside of the welded steel pipe with the screwdriver. Compare your results:


The scratched area will look like a copper penny.
A magnet will NOT stick to it.

The scratched area will appear ivory or white in color.
A magnet will NOT stick to it

Galvanized steel
The scratched area will have a silver-gray color.
A strong magnet will stick to it.

The scratched area will have a dull silver-gray color, and the metal will usually be soft and easy to scratch. A magnet will NOT stick to it. Lead LSAW welded pipes are easy to bend and may be misshapen. If you have lead pipes, we recommend replacement if at all possible.

Be sure to scratch test your pipes in multiple areas. It is not uncommon to have more than one type of piping on your water line.

Do galvanized pipes contain lead?

The galvanized pipes installed on water lines between 1880 and 1960 were dipped in molten, naturally occurring zinc. Naturally occurring zinc is impure, so these pipes, such as boiler pipe, fluid pipe, coating steel pipe, were bathed in zinc that also contained lead and other impurities. The zinc coating elongated the life of the steel pipes, but added small amount of lead and other substances that could potentially harm inhabitants.

Additionally, if your galvanized pipes were ever connected to lead plumbing (including service lines) there is more cause for concern. The corrosion inside galvanized steel pipes could have trapped small pieces of the lead. Even if the lead piping was removed years ago, the galvanized steel pipes could still periodically release the trapped lead into the water flow. Chicago didn’t stop using lead pipes for service lines until 1986, and an estimated 400,000 lead service lines are still in use in Chicago alone.

The only way to ensure that lead is not mobilized from plumbing to tap in a given home is to fully replace the galvanized plumbing and any lead service lines.

What other problems can galvanized pipes cause?

Low Water Pressure
Due to the restriction of the line, corrosion in galvanized pipes can cause lower water pressure throughout your home.

Uneven Distribution of Water
If some of your taps have low water pressure, but others don’t, this could be a symptom of galvanized pipes. Corrosion can build up unevenly. Also, part of the galvanized steel piling pipe line could have been replaced in your home, but not everywhere.

Discoloration of Water
Galvanized SSAW welded pipes can release iron and cause discoloration. A clear indicator of this is a brown stain on a porcelain sink.

Given enough time, galvanized pipes will rust through and cause more damage to your home.

Is it possible to use retraining to swap Class feats for Archetype feats?

The Retraining activity says about Feats –

You can spend a week of downtime retraining to swap out one of your feats. Remove the old feat and replace it with another of the same type. For example, you could swap a skill feat for another skill feat, but not for a wizard feat.

Archetype feats (Dedication and otherwise) are selected in place of Class feats, but are generally not actually Class feats (there are some exceptions that overlap, and there are possibly Class archetypes in the future). Can retraining be used to swap a Class feat for an Archetype feat, or vice versa?

The Feat retraining rule seems to say you can only swap a feat for the same type of feat, but I think this language is simply intended to prevent a character from replacing a feat with a type they would not have been able to take at that point, rather than outright mandating the feat needs to be exactly the same type.

Can I use a maneuver to meet the prerequisites for a martial stance, then swap out that maneuver later?

I’m a Warblade in the process of reaching level 6. I have one level 1 Diamond Mind maneuver. Is the following possible:

For my level six feat, I want to take Martial Stance to attain the Diamond Mind stance Pearl of Black Doubt. It needs one Diamond Mind maneuver as a pre-req.

Can I take that feat and add that maneuver, the swap out that maneuver for one of a different school as per the Warblade leveling rules?

Can I swap a maneuver known with another one if I have te requisite before the swap but stop having it after?

The Tome of Battle states the following:

Upon reaching 4th level, and at every even-numbered swordsage level after that (6th, 8th, 10th, and so on), you can choose to learn a new maneuver in place of one you already know. In effect, you lose the old maneuver in exchange for the new one. You can choose a new maneuver of any level you like, as long as you observe your restriction on the highest- level maneuvers you know; you need not replace the old maneuver with a maneuver of the same level. For example, upon reaching 10th level, you could trade in a single 1st-, 2nd-, 3rd- or 4th-level maneuver for a maneuver of 5th level or lower, as long as you meet the prerequisite of the new maneuver. You can swap only a single maneuver at any given level.

So, let’s say my PC (Monk 4, Swordsage 4) has Mighty Throw as his only Setting Sun maneuver and wants to swap it at level 4 with Devastating Throw. He accomplishes the requisite of having 1 Setting Sun maneuver before the swap, however, he no longer accomplishes the requisite after the swap (unless you count the Devastating Throw itself). Is this swap possible?

Can WhatsApp, Signal or Telegram be hacked through a SIM SWAP attack?

In Cuba the telecoms/ ISP monopoly, Etecsa, works with the political police to spy on dissidents, journalists and others. A common attack in Cuba is therefore SIM Swapping which is easy for them. It is also effective in order to eavesdrop on phone conversations and SMS. My question is: Would the SIM Swap enable the attacker to also hack WhatsApp, Signal or Telegram and gain access to these messages or calls? If so, are there any measures that can be taken to prevent the attacker from accessing the secure messaging apps via a SIM Swap attack? Thank you very much for your help

What Happens if I swap the forget gate and update gate in LSTM model?

Consider the following eqautions used in LSTM ( taken from Andrew ng’s course on Sequential model)

In an LSTM model, LSTM Cell has three inputs at any time step t

  • Input($ X_t , a^{(t-1)}, C^{(t-1)})$ ,

    Here $ X_t$ is the input vector, $ a^{(t-1)}$ is the previous hidden state and $ C^{(t-1)}$ is the previous cell state

Now the new cell state $ c^t$ is given by the following formula :

$ C^t = $ forget_gate * $ C^{(t-1)} + $ update_gate* $ \overline{C^t}$


If I swap the places of forget_gate and update_gate, I still get a valid $ C^t$ , So why are we multilyting the previous cell state with forget gate only and the current cell state with update gate only, what if Imultiply previous cell state with update gate ?

Edit : After swapping, the formula would look like this,

$ C^t = $ update_gate * $ C^{(t-1)} + $ forget_gate* $ \overline{C^t}$

enter image description here

why swap function is use in union find algorithm? How rank or size array is used for optimization

void union_sets(int a, int b) {     a = find_set(a);     b = find_set(b);     if (a != b) {         if (size[a] < size[b])             swap(a, b);         parent[b] = a;         size[a] += size[b];     } } 

Q1.why we need this swapping? can’t we do like this without swapping

if (size[a] < size[b])          parent[a] = b;         size[b] += size[a];  

Q2.what is the difference between size array and rank array.Is Rank means the height of a node and size means no of node in that tree which contains this node

What are the pros and cons of multiclassing a Dragonborn Paladin with either Sorcerer or Warlock? and when and if to swap over [closed]

My Dragonborn Paladin is nearing the end of level 2, (Str3, Dex0, Con2, Int-1, Wis-1, Cha3, with Defensive giving AC19).

The main group I play with, he is the only Tank, unless my 10 year old daughter, joins in with her Circle of the moon Druid

She is the only child in the group and you can’t rely on her to focus on battle tactics 🙂

—————-new below ——————

My initial goal was to create a super paladin, I tend to play him as a tank with healing, saving my limited spell casting for just the right time due to limited spell slots, so I hardly ever use it. I once even died holding onto the valuable spell slots because I forgot about them.

However, once I started looking into it, I haven’t found that perfect sweet spot, that balances out the Spell Slinging Tank Front Man. All the options I’ve looked at have drawbacks that make me wonder if it is a combo that is worth pursuing

Just hoping for that splash of inspiration to make it all come together.

Can a Mystic swap out their Bonus Disciplines for some that aren’t from their Order?

The Mystic is an Unearthed Arcana class in D&D 5th Edition. All the Mystic Orders (subclasses) except the Soul Knife get Bonus Disciplines :

At 1st level, you learn two additional psionic disciplines of your choice. They must be chosen from among [your Order’s] disciplines.

Regular disciplines can be swapped out :

In addition, whenever you gain a level in this class, you can replace one discipline you know with a different one of your choice.

Can the Bonus Disciplines also be swapped out, even for replacements that aren’t from the Order ?

Is concept of virtual memory about memory isolation or about ability to swap? Or both?

Most reading I found about virtual memory, such as http://www.linux-tutorial.info/modules.php?name=MContent&pageid=89 or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virtual_memory always state that virtual memory is a concept that allows operating system to make it “appear as though you have more memory than you really do”.

But isn’t that what overcommit is about? Isn’t whole virtual memory concept primarily about the fact that each process has an isolated virtual memory pool, thus being unable to read or modify other process memory?

If not, what is this technology of memory isolation within own virtual memory pools called?