How to handle degrees of success in roll under systems

I’m working on an RPG system that uses 2d6 roll under Skill for resolutions. On paper this system looks really good so far, but I have one major issue: Degrees of Success, especially when it comes to Contest (Skill vs Skill) resolutions.

Status Quo

Your character’s Attribute + Skill (e.g. Charisma + Persuasion) form a Target Number that’s between 2 and 12. You roll 2d6, sum them, and the sum has to be equal to or lower than the Target Number. Rolling a 1 has a special positive meaning, rolling a 6 has a special negative meaning. Additionally, 2 ones are always a success, 2 sixes are always a failure, regardless of Skill.

The problem

Imagine 2 parties contesting each other:

  • Character A has a Target Number of 5 (pretty bad), and character B has a Target Number of 10 (pretty good).
  • Character A rolls a 5 and succeeds. Character B and rolls a 6 and succeeds.
  • Character B has the better Degree of Success, as the margin between the player’s roll and the character’s Skill is bigger than for Character A.

If you say that lower is better, a character with Target Number 2 (very, very bad), who rolled a 2, will always have a better Degree of Success over a character with a Target Number 12 (very, very good), who rolled a 3.

Naive solution

My approach was to subtract the rolled number from the character’s Skill. You have a Target Number of 6 and rolled a 4? 6-4=2. You have a Target Number of 11 and rolled a 3? 11-3=8. It works, but I’m worried that this resolution will be too slow for actual play – we all know these sessions that last for hours and nobody is able to count straight anymore.

The best solution would allow a player to determine the Degree of Success/Failure in the same step to see if the character succeeded or not.

Other systems

Other systems that handle Degrees of Success for rolling under mechanics:

  • Call of Cthulhu: You have certain threesholds (half your skill, 1/5 your skill) at which you score an increased Degree of Success. – very coarse when you only have 2d6 instead of a 1d100 (but could work)
  • Unknown Armies: Basically like Black Jack–you roll under your Skill threshold, but as high as possible. Doubles (11, 22, 33) are criticals. – sadly doesn’t work, as ones and sixes have a special meaning. Flipping the meaning (6 is good, 1 is bad) also is iffy, as it’s flipping the understanding, that you have to roll under a threshold.
  • ???

What other systems or resolution systems are there, that tackle this problem?

What’s a good comparison of different OSR Systems?

I’m looking to play a retro clone or something that is similar to old style D&D, but with the rules smoothed over a bit.

I’m seeing LOTS of different systems and it’s a bit daunting.

Some attributes I’d like to compare, to give you an example:

  • randomly spawning monsters?
  • random monster attitudes towards the players?
  • random treasure
  • random diseases
  • random etc…
  • inventory management: weight? slots?
  • player reviews
  • popularity / size of community
  • what is the max level / how long to recover from player death
  • are all encounters beatable?
  • how is armor class calculated?
  • are there dungeon turns?
  • light management
  • hex-crawl rules / overworld travel rules
  • reaction rolls
  • number of skills
  • death at 0HP vs stabilization rolls
  • magic system mechanics

Is there a comparison chart that can help me compare lots of different systems?

Dominant payment systems in Latin America

Hi everyone!!! I am doing a research and need information about the different dominant payment systems throughout LATAM countries.
1. North And Central America
1.1. Belize
1.2. Costa Rica
1.3. El Salvador
1.4. Guatemala
1.5. Honduras
1.6. Mexico
1.7. Nicaragua
1.8. Panama
2. South America
2.1. Argentina
2.2. Bolivia
2.3. Brazil
2.4. Chile
2.5. Colombia
2.6. Ecuador
2.7. Guyana
2.8. Paraguay
2.9. Peru
2.10. Suriname
2.11. Uruguay
2.12. Venezuela
3. Caribbean countries
3.1. Cuba
3.2….

Dominant payment systems in Latin America

Course teaching time complexities in real life systems

Having mis-read What course in CS deals with the study of RAM, CPU, Storage? I now wonder what course in CS deals with time complexities including GPUs, CPU caches in multiple levels, seek times on hard disk vs. SSDs, and bandwidth to disk and RAM.

I was taught the big O-notation but it never took into account that I might have a GPU with 100s of cores, or a limited amount of extremely fast cache, or a harddisk that is has a high bandwidth, but a high seek time.

Which class teaches this extended version of algorithm time complexities, which takes real world limitations into account?

How critical is encryption-at-rest for public cloud hosted systems

I wok as a solutions architect for web based systems on AWS and as part of this role often respond to Information Security questionnaires. Nearly all questionnaires request information about data encryption at-rest and in-transit. However only a much smaller percentage ask about other security aspects, such as password policies or common web application security issues, as published by OWASP.

I wonder how common/ likely accessing of clients data is within a public cloud provider such as AWS, Azure and GCP. It seems a very high barrier to pass for an external party, even data centers of small local web hosting companies seem to have very good physical access security. And informal conversations with bank employees tell me that accessing someone’s bank account without reason leads to instant dismissal, so surely public cloud providers would have similar controls in place?

This is not to challenge the value of encryption at rest, it is very cheap to access, so there is no reason not to enable it, but where does it sit in terms of priorities?

Use of graph grammars/rewriting systems in compilers?

A(n imperative) program – in a higher-level language and more importantly in assembly language or intermediate representations like LLVM – can be formalized as a directed "port graph", in which vertices are instructions and ports correspond to input/output operands/arguments. An optimization applied of a program’s code therefore corresponds to a rewrite applied to its port digraph.

Now, graph rewriting is a small but somewhat-active area, in itself. What I’m wondering if these kinds of systems have been actually put to explicit use in the context of a compiler. That is, representing the optimization phase as a rewriting process, or a derivation using a port-graph grammar.

I’m not much of a "compilers guy" – I took a basic course on them in my undergraduate degree, and I know about LLVM and its IR – but it seems to me that graph rewriting systems is the "obvious" formalism to use; and at the same time – I don’t see almost any FOSS projects involving such systems, nor do the papers about them discuss their use in compilers.

Note: I’m more interested in practical-use, popular-language compilers more than academia-only systems, but I’ll take what I can get.

What can I read about how we tie the stochastic characteristics of task resolution into statements about a game system’s aesthetics? [closed]

I like making RPG systems. One thing I’ve noticed is that different kinds of task resolution systems make the game significantly different.

Background

For example, games like D&D 3.X and Shadowrun 4E have a very details-oriented approach to task resolution. A typical die roll in combat might be something like 1d20+1+1+4+3+(7+2+3)*1.5+20-2 v.s. 10+8+min(4,1)+5+3+2+5, where each number comes from a different source and things like "I enjoyed breakfast greatly! +3 to hit" and "My shoes are freshly polished for +1 max dex mod to AC" matter greatly.

There are a limited number of modifiers and choosing the right combination for any given character is immensely important to the character’s success in the game.

Other games, like FATE 2.0 or Amber Diceless, have a different approach. There a typical task looks like 5+4dF vs 3+4dF±2. All of the things that are tracked carefully in the first examples are abstracted away into a single modifier. This modifier generally does not exceed 50% of the base skill amount, and is generally regarded as less important than having a higher base skill amount. (In Amber diceless the ‘rolls’ are even more extreme: 1±1 v 3±1 is an example of a task’s mechanical description there).

I am comfortable talking about this kind of difference between RPGs in general. We can talk about levels of abstraction, we can talk about focus, we can describe a system as ‘high-level’ or ‘detail-oriented’ or whatever.

The problem

What I am less comfortable with is the manner in which the stochastic character of a system’s task resolution comes off to participants of RPGs run in it.

For example, I can tell you that the absence of dice in Amber significantly changes the feel of the game versus a similar setting modeled and run in FATE 2.0.
I’m much less articulate as to what the actual differences are, though. I’m aware of some popular pieces on randomness in RPGs, like the ‘goblin dice’ thing, but none of them really talk about the full space of stochastic design available to us as game designers. We can talk about how 2d6 is ‘less swingy’ than 1d13, but how using one or the other more commonly for some hypothetical ruleset would influence our aesthetic perception of that ruleset is not immediately clear.

I’m looking for a published overview of ways that different features of a task resolution system (in terms of stochastic analysis) are relevant to the ‘feel’ (i.e. the perception of aesthetic qualities) of the overall game system from a game-design perspective. In particular, I’m interested in the impact of the magnitude of the stochastic variance of the resolution system on the system, as well as the impact of greater or lesser volatility, and of polynomialization of the distribution (i.e. how binomial, trinomial, etc distribution for a game’s randomizer affects the game’s overall aesthetic).

Basically, I’m looking to read published work addressing the question: How do we tie the stochastic characteristics of task resolution into a statement about the experience of using a particular role-playing game system?

What makes a good answer?

Answers will recommend further reading on the topic to support the claims made in their shorter overview. IJRP preferred. I’m looking for an overview, not a full discussion– it’s sufficient to provide references to appropriate academic literature and to explain how, and that, that literature answers the question. Also, since comments indicate that people are seeking primarily for online sources, let it be explicitly mentioned that offline sources like books are no less good for their being offline (RPGs may be young, but they most certainly predate widespread internet use).