When do objects take damage from being inside the Whirlpool option of the Control Water spell?

The control water spell allows you to create a whirlpool which includes the following in its description:

[…] The first time each turn that an object enters the vortex, the object takes 2d8 bludgeoning damage; this damage occurs each round it remains in the vortex.

I understand that an object takes damage on any turn that it enters the vortex, even if it does so multiple times in a single round. But when exactly is “each round”; when does the re-occurring damage for remaining in the vortex actually happen; when does an object inside of a whirlpool actually take the 2d8 bludgeoning damage?


Note, that if they instead had said “each turn” then these objects would be taking damage multiple times per round. I hesitate a guess that some of the unusual wording here comes from the fact that objects don’t even have turns of their own so they couldn’t have used the wording they usually do for creatures.

How does image reconstruction take place in neural network?

I am reading through and thinking about how neural network works and have been reading about convolutional neural networks (CNN). I am particularly interested in image filtering (or enhancing) using CNN. The thing that confuses me is, how exactly does CNN produce the output, filtered/enhanced image? From what I understand each layer convolves the previous input into more distinctive features, so aren’t we essentially losing details? How would the network then know that, for example, this noisy image A, should be cleaned up here and there as such trained to produce a clean image B?

How long do user research studies tend to take when the participant needs a translator?

My team is running several user research studies on a mostly internal product with both English-speaking and non-English-speaking users. The studies are written in English.

One is a quantitative Google Forms survey with multiple choice questions. This has taken most English-speaking users 15-20 minutes to complete (internal pilot with self-reported completion time). The other is a qualitative benchmark usability study using UserTesting. This has taken English-speaking participants 15-25 minutes to complete.

Making the following assumptions:

  1. The translators are familiar with the users’ domain, but not familiar with user research. (No one on our team speaks the natural languages that these users speak.)
  2. All of the studies take place remotely, not onsite. The non-English-speaking users are in different countries from us.
  3. Due to time zone differences, our team is not available to assist the participants.
  4. The product is translated into the users’ languages and has the same features and a consistent layout with the English version.

How long should we tell the participants that these studies will take? Is there any research that compares how long English-speaking participants take vs. participants requiring an English translation?

Can we take Attack action when not in range of enemy?

Can you take the Attack action without attacking, just to get any side benefits?

For example, Blade Flourish says:

Whenever you take the Attack action on your turn, your walking speed increases by 10 feet until the end of the turn […]

In all examples the bard has a speed of 30 feet and does not have Extra Attack.

First relevant scenario:

The Bard and the enemy is 40 ft apart. If the Bard can take Attack action before spending all 30 ft movement, then he can reach the enemy and attack them with the added extra movement. If not, the Bard and the enemy is now 10 ft apart.

Second relevant scenario:

There is an enemy around the corner. The Bard might or might not know there is an enemy there. With the added movement from Blade Flourish, he will be able to walk around the corner and attack the enemy.

Third relevant scenario:

Same as second scenario, but he will only be able to walk around the corner without being able to attack. He does not know if he can reach to attack the enemy at the end of the turn.

Is taking Attack action allowed without being able to make an attack?

Clarification: Paladin falls and chooses not to take the oath breaker class

tl;dr: How do you handle a fallen paladin who wants to take a new class rather than the oathbreaker devotion.

I have a level 6 player who wanted to play a lawful good aasimar paladin (oath of devotion). Then they decided they wanted to be an alchemist (fine, no problem). Then they decided they wanted to be a serial killer who murders anyone who annoys them for alchemy components (wait, what??)

I got them to agree to go from lawful good to lawful neutral IF they agreed only to kill evil people (murderers, etc) AND they could justify that their alchemy was to achieve the main goal of stopping the great evils of the world, and not just for personal gain. But that’s not really what they want the character to be…and they don’t want to create a new character.

They also agreed that they’re ok not being a paladin anymore. So most paladin’s can either choose a new class or become an oathbreaker, if they break their oath.

So my question is, if they pick a new class (say wizard), should it be treated like multiclassing where they’re a level 6 paladin that can’t do oath or paladin spells (but still have the proficiencies and stuff) and a level 1 wizard (when they level up to 7, of course). Or should they lose all proficiencies, abilities, etc. from being a Paladin and become a level 6 wizard (makes less sense). Or should they be dropped to a level 1 wizard and be stripped of all paladin stuff?

Clarification: Paladin falls and chooses not to take the oath breaker class

tl;dr: How do you handle a fallen paladin who wants to take a new class rather than the oathbreaker devotion.

I have a level 6 player who wanted to play a lawful good aasimar paladin (oath of devotion). Then they decided they wanted to be an alchemist (fine, no problem). Then they decided they wanted to be a serial killer who murders anyone who annoys them for alchemy components (wait, what??)

I got them to agree to go from lawful good to lawful neutral IF they agreed only to kill evil people (murderers, etc) AND they could justify that their alchemy was to achieve the main goal of stopping the great evils of the world, and not just for personal gain. But that’s not really what they want the character to be…and they don’t want to create a new character.

They also agreed that they’re ok not being a paladin anymore. So most paladin’s can either choose a new class or become an oathbreaker, if they break their oath.

So my question is, if they pick a new class (say wizard), should it be treated like multiclassing where they’re a level 6 paladin that can’t do oath or paladin spells (but still have the proficiencies and stuff) and a level 1 wizard (when they level up to 7, of course). Or should they lose all proficiencies, abilities, etc. from being a Paladin and become a level 6 wizard (makes less sense). Or should they be dropped to a level 1 wizard and be stripped of all paladin stuff?

Clarification: Paladin falls and chooses not to take the oath breaker class – D&D 5e

tl;dr: How do you handle a fallen paladin who wants to take a new class rather than the oathbreaker devotion.

I have a level 6 player who wanted to play a lawful good aasimar paladin (oath of devotion). Then they decided they wanted to be an alchemist (fine, no problem). Then they decided they wanted to be a serial killer who murders anyone who annoys them for alchemy components (wait, what??)

I got them to agree to go from lawful good to lawful neutral IF they agreed only to kill evil people (murderers, etc) AND they could justify that their alchemy was to achieve the main goal of stopping the great evils of the world, and not just for personal gain. But that’s not really what they want the character to be…and they don’t want to create a new character.

They also agreed that they’re ok not being a paladin anymore. So most paladin’s can either choose a new class or become an oathbreaker, if they break their oath.

So my question is, if they pick a new class (say wizard), should it be treated like multiclassing where they’re a level 6 paladin that can’t do oath or paladin spells (but still have the proficiencies and stuff) and a level 1 wizard (when they level up to 7, of course). Or should they lose all proficiencies, abilities, etc. from being a Paladin and become a level 6 wizard (makes less sense). Or should they be dropped to a level 1 wizard and be stripped of all paladin stuff?

Clarification: Paladin falls and chooses not to take the oath breaker class – D&D 5e

tl;dr: How do you handle a fallen paladin who wants to take a new class rather than the oathbreaker devotion.

I have a level 6 player who wanted to play a lawful good aasimar paladin (oath of devotion). Then they decided they wanted to be an alchemist (fine, no problem). Then they decided they wanted to be a serial killer who murders anyone who annoys them for alchemy components (wait, what??)

I got them to agree to go from lawful good to lawful neutral IF they agreed only to kill evil people (murderers, etc) AND they could justify that their alchemy was to achieve the main goal of stopping the great evils of the world, and not just for personal gain. But that’s not really what they want the character to be…and they don’t want to create a new character.

They also agreed that they’re ok not being a paladin anymore. So most paladin’s can either choose a new class or become an oathbreaker, if they break their oath.

So my question is, if they pick a new class (say wizard), should it be treated like multiclassing where they’re a level 6 paladin that can’t do oath or paladin spells (but still have the proficiencies and stuff) and a level 1 wizard (when they level up to 7, of course). Or should they lose all proficiencies, abilities, etc. from being a Paladin and become a level 6 wizard (makes less sense). Or should they be dropped to a level 1 wizard and be stripped of all paladin stuff?

How long does it take for a gnome to “bleach”?

Several Pathfinder sources indicate that gnomes don’t exactly die of old age in the traditional sense. Instead, gnomes who don’t regularly experience new and exciting things undergo “The Bleaching”, which causes their hair and skin to turn gray and their minds to deteriorate. I’m trying to find more information about this process, particularly…

  1. How long does it take? Does a gnome notice himself going gray over months or years, or can a gnome suddenly wake up bleached?
  2. Once it starts, can the progression be halted? For example, what happens if a bleaching gnome suddenly discovers a new passion?

How long does it take for a gnome to “bleach”?

Several Pathfinder sources indicate that gnomes don’t exactly die of old age in the traditional sense. Instead, gnomes who don’t regularly experience new and exciting things undergo “The Bleaching”, which causes their hair and skin to turn gray and their minds to deteriorate. I’m trying to find more information about this process, particularly…

  1. How long does it take? Does a gnome notice himself going gray over months or years, or can a gnome suddenly wake up bleached?
  2. Once it starts, can the progression be halted? For example, what happens if a bleaching gnome suddenly discovers a new passion?