Is there a way to change the damage type being dealt by a weapon?

Last night I was playing as my level 20 Barbarian, when our party encountered an enemy who was immune to all damage, unless it was of a specific elemental type.

This was particularly unfortunate for me, since my Barbarian deals exclusively in piercing and slashing damage. This resulted in me effectively standing around acting as a damage sponge while the party’s spell-casters dealt all the damage.

While not a disastrous situation, it got me thinking:

Are there any ways to effectively change the type of damage I am dealing?

To be more specific, I am curious if there are any spells, enchantments, magics, magical weapons, etc which can change the type of damage a weapon’s normal attack would have dealt. For example, my Barbarian’s weapon deals slashing damage – I am wondering if there are ways to change the damage type into something else(eg into instead dealing fire or poison damage, or even piercing or bludgeoning).

I’ve read this similar question, but am playing 5e, not 3.5.

Is there any way to change falling damage to another damage type?

The rules on “Falling” state:

[…] At the end of a fall, a creature takes 1d6 bludgeoning damage for every 10 feet it fell, to a maximum of 20d6…

When looking at the reverse gravity spell I realized it states:

[…] If some solid object (such as a ceiling) is encountered in this fall, falling objects and creatures strike it just as they would during a normal downward fall…

And then in this related question “Do any damage resistances apply to Reverse Gravity?” it is shown that falling damage, even from this spell, is still just bludgeoning damage. Is there any way to change the type of damage that a fall inflicts?

Maybe some object explicitly has this property or there is a way to change all damage a creature takes to another type, which would thus include fall damage?

If this is possible, then certain creatures, like the treant, would take more damage from falling so pushing them off a cliff or using reverse gravity on them would be more effective.

If a method is available to both PC’s and Monsters, that would be ideal. But if there is a method only available to PC’s and another method only available to Monsters that would work as well.

Is there any scenario whereby randomly shufflying a sequence improves it’s compressibility?

I’m performing some correlation assessment à la NIST Recommendation for the Entropy Sources Used for Random Bit Generation, § 5.1.

You take a test sequence and compress it with a standard compression algorithm. You then shuffle that sequence randomly using a PRNG, and re-compress. We expect that the randomly shuffled sequence to be harder to compress as any and all redundancy and correlations will have been destroyed. It’s entropy will have increased.

So if there is any auto correlation, $ \frac{\text{size compressed shuffled}} {\text{size compressed original}} > 1$ .

This works using NIST’s recommended bz2 algorithm, and on my data samples, the ratio is ~1.03. This indicates a slight correlation within the data. When I switch to LZMA, the ratio is ~0.99 which is < 1. And this holds over hundreds of runs so it’s not just a stochastic fluke.

What would cause the LZMA algorithm to repetitively compress a randomly shuffled sequence (slightly) better than a non shuffled one?

Is there a recommended party size for Waterdeep: Dragon Heist?

I’m planning on starting a campaign of Waterdeep: Dragon Heist tomorrow, but it’s looking like we may only have two players (plus me as DM) for it. The other published adventures I’ve used (Lost Mine of Phandelver and Storm King’s Thunder) each say a recommended party size for them, which we haven’t always had but helped me figure out how much I needed to adjust the included encounters when we had fewer players. But I can’t find within Dragon Heist the party size that it’s designed for. Due to it being more of an intrigue-based campaign than a hack-and-slash style, does it work just as well if you have two PCs or six?

Are there any rules covering selfmade gear as starting equipment on higher levels?

Let’s say that a player creates a 6th level character with maximum possible ranks in craft (armorsmithing) . They want to start with selfmade full plate armor. Should they still cover the full price of the armor or just the materials, which are one third of the price? I believe that selfmade starting gear should be less pricey than one bought on the market. On the other hand I am afraid, it could be heavily exploited, like starting with +5 adamantium battle plate armor. Are there any books, including third parties covering how to deal with this problem?

I want to know where there is the flaw in my argument

I came across following problem to finding whether the following language is decidable or semi-decidable or not even a semi-decidable.

$ L: \{\langle M\rangle: M\space is\space a\space TM\space and\space |L(M)| \ge3\}$

Now thinking intuitively I conjectured that this language is semi-decidable. We can say yes when the input does belong to $ L$ . But, we can not say no when the input does not belong to $ L$ .

Now, I formulated following reduction from complement of halting problem $ \overline{HP}$ which is not semi-decidable (non $ RE$ ).

$ \overline{HP}: \{\langle M, w\rangle : M\space is\space TM\space and\space it\space does\space not\space halt\space on\space string\space w.\}$

$ \tau(\langle M,x\rangle) = \langle M’\rangle$ .

$ M’$ on input $ w$ works as follows. It erases w, puts $ M$ and $ x$ on its tape, and runs $ M$ on $ x$ and accepts if $ M$ doesn’t halt on x. Otherwise it rejects.


Proof of validity of reduction:

$ \langle M,x\rangle \in \overline{HP} \implies M\space does\space not\space halt\space on\space x \implies M’\space accepts\space all\space inputs\space \implies|L(M’)| \ge 3\implies M’ \in L$

$ \langle M,x\rangle \notin \overline{HP} \implies M\space does\space halt\space on\space x \implies M’\space rejects\space all\space inputs\space \implies|L(M’)| < 3\implies M’ \notin L$


According to above reduction $ \overline{HP}$ should be recursively enumerable$ (RE)$ which it is not. So, $ L$ should not be $ RE$ but it indeed is $ RE$ . So, my reduction must be flawed.

Please point out where I messed up.

Is there a polynomial-time algorithm to minimize regular expressions without Kleene closures/stars?

I have read that minimizing regular expressions is, in general, a PSPACE problem. Is it known whether minimizing regular expressions without the Kleene closure (star, asterisk) is in P?

The language of any such regular expression would be guaranteed to be finite. I suppose an equivalent question is whether the problem of constructing a minimal regular expression from a known finite language is any easier than minimizing an arbitrary regular expression. It seems like this should be the case.

(If the answer is that it is easier and there’s an obvious proof, I’m happy to go attempt it, I just haven’t thought about the problem deeply yet and wanted to see what I’d be getting myself into first.)

Is there a scenario where a gnoll flesh gnawer can move at least 45 feet during its Rampage bonus action?

The base movement speed of a gnoll flesh gnawer is 30 feet, and if it activates rampage by bringing a creature to 0 hit points, it can move an additional 15 feet for a total of 45 feet during “normal” combat.

But is there a way that rampage could be triggered for the flesh gnawer after it gains a movement speed of 90 feet from its Sudden Rush action? This should allow the flesh gnawer to traverse 135 feet in one turn.

Ideally this would require only actions/abilities possessed by the various gnoll types, but I am open to other first-party/non-homebrew solutions for Dungeons and Dragons 5e that may make this possible.

Potentially relevant text from some of the gnoll actions are listed below:

Sudden Rush

Until the end of the turn, the gnoll’s speed increases by 60 feet and doesn’t provoke opportunity attacks.

Incite Rampage (Possessed by the Gnoll Pack Lord)

One creature the gnoll can see within 30 feet of it can use its reaction to make a melee attack if it can hear the gnoll and has the Rampage trait.

Rampage

When the gnoll reduces a creature to 0 hit points with a melee attack on its turn, the gnoll can take a bonus action to move up to half its speed and make a bite attack.