Reasons why there would be no EXIF data at all on a received photo?

I received a photo and it’s critically important for me to be sure of its veracity.

The photo was received on my iphone via imessage. I downloaded an EXIF data app and imported the photo, and the app said there was no EXIF data available. This individual has sent me many other photos via imessage so I checked some of those – all of them had full and complete metadata available. I checked other photos sent by other people – they had metadata too. This one particular photo has none (just file size and image size).

Can someone please explain some other possibilities as to how this could happen OTHER than the individual purposefully wiping the metadata from the image?

Is there a “Shadowdark” or similar in the Shadowfell like how there’s a Feydark in the Feywild?

The Material Plane (or Prime Material Plane) has an underground realm known as the Underdark.

There are planes in 5e that were introduced in 4e, the Feywild and the Shadowfell, that are reflections of the Material Plane.

In the Feywild, there is a realm called the Feydark, which is a reflection of the Underdark of the Material Plane.

Is there an equivalent realm within the Shadowfell that is a reflection of the Underdark? A "Shadowdark" or similar?


I’m looking for lore from official 5e or 4e material, but I don’t expect there to be any such lore from editions before 4e because the Feywild and Shadowfell didn’t exist before then (although, since the Plane of Shadow from previous lore is considered to be the same as the Shadowfell, there might be something relevant from previous editions, but I’m expecting that most of the relevant information will come from 4e).

Are there non-bridge crew roles?

I am helping to develop a campaign for Star Trek Adventures. This campaign would focus on several new recruits on their first assignment (all ensign or non-commissioned). None of them would be bridge crew. Rather, they would be more rank-and-file members on a smaller ship who would progress to bridge crew throughout the campaign.

One of the last steps in character creation is to choose a role. The roles listed in the core rules are all bridge officers – people who generally have considerable experience already. Are there roles somewhere that are more appropriate to non-bridge crew?

What security concerns are there regarding website users inputting personal financial data without putting in personally identifying data?

I am a web developer, but I have only a rudimentary grasp of security, e.g., be careful to sanitize inputs, store as little user data as possible, encrypt passwords, keep up with security issues of libraries and packages, etc.

Today, I was approached by a client who does financial planning about replacing a spreadsheet he gives clients with a web-based form. The spreadsheet asks users to input certain financial data – e.g., current value of various investment accounts, business interests, etc. These numbers are put into a formula and a value is generated which is supposed to help the user decide whether the consulting could be useful to them.

The phone call was very short, and my questions focused on more mundane matters about user experience, desired UI elements, etc. No commitments have been made, and I’m analyzing the project to see if it’s something I can do. I began to think about potential security issues, and I realized I really don’t know where to start. So far it seems that client wants the form to be accessed via a magic link, and that the user would not enter any personally identifying information. I do not know yet whether my potential client wants to store the value generated, a simple dollar amount which is the ‘benefit’ the user could get by using the service. The impression I got is that my potential client simply wants to use this value as a motivator for clients to inquire further about his services.

My question is this: In this scenario, what security-related matters should I consider?

Thank you.

Is there anything that can bypass temporary hit points?

I have found a wizard spell from The Book Of Lost Spells, called Soul Shield. In my opinion, it is super overpowered, but my DM has allowed it.

The spell says that a wizard can convert their "real" hit points into twice as many temporary hit points, so long as you always leave yourself on at least 1 "real" hit point.

I instantly saw how amazing this was, however it leaves me wondering if there was a poison, disease, monster ability or the like that bypasses the buffer provided by temporary hit points and removes my remaining "real" hit point.
I have looked for such an ability, yet found none.

Is there one?

My DM likes to take things from homebrews quite a lot, so long as they are balanced, and I have had a look through a number of different sources. As such, a homebrew compendium is an acceptable answer for this question, but please link the source.

The spell in question works as follows:

Soul Shield

2nd Level abjuration

Components: VS
Casting Time: 1 action
Duration: 1 hour
Concentration: No

You siphon some of your life force into a shimmering shield of light around yourself. Sacrifice any number of your hit points (up to your current total -1) when you cast the spell, and you immediately gain twice as many temporary hit points. You must leave yourself at least 1 “real” hit point. While any of those temporary hit points remain, you get tactical advantage on Dexterity and Constitution saving throws. Remaining temporary hit points disappear when the spell ends. The spell ends immediately if all the temporary hit points are lost.

Is there a class ability, spell or other, that lets you share spells with your familiar?

Scenario:

I have a Wizard/Warlock with pact of the chain feature, who I have themed off He-Man. I love the idea of using Tenser’s Transformation to buff both he and his familiar up for combat. However, it has a range of self, which seems to really limit my options.

Anyone have a work around? I am willing to change my class or multi class as needed. (We stick to using the hardcover books, and not UA or 3rd party stuff)

Is there a standard for “virtual receipts”, and is it actually used anywhere?

I just got another e-mail from my food store after I had placed an order. It has no plaintext version, only a HTML one. Only with extreme amounts of efforts from me could I parse out the products and their individual prices and quantities… until they change their e-mails the next time.

I currently "only" parse out the delivery date/time, the total price for the order and the order id. Which is insanity.

Is there really no "digital receipt" standard? They seem to have no hidden JSON/CSV blob anywhere in their e-mail, or even manually downloadable from their website when logged in. How is one supposed to actually make a local database of what they buy and the prices and stuff? Even just figuring out how to parse their e-mails for the total price was quite a bit of work, and I’m certain that almost nobody out there does this.

How come this was apparently overlooked, in spite of being such an important and basic thing for "e-commerce"? Am I really expected to manually input all of this data or spend countless hours figuring out their broken HTML blob and keep updating it whenever they change their e-mails, and do this for every single store I ever buy anything from?

I strongly suspect that there is some standard, probably released as an RFC in 1997 or something, but nobody wants to implement it because it means "giving away control" in their eyes?

Are there any game breaking consequences in this multiclass house rule?

Follow up to this question.

So, as stated in that question, I feel that it is quite weird that a 3rd level paladin + 2nd level Ranger is not equivalent to a 5th level Half-caster (such as a 5th level Paladin), but weaker (being equivalent to a 4th level Paladin).

With that in mind, I intend to use the following multiclassing house-rule for determining the spell slots:

  • Sum the levels of the half-casters first. So, in the example, 3 + 2 = 5.
  • Divide by two. (Divide by three for Arcane Fighter/Rogue – both after summing them together as well).
  • Round it to closest integers, rounding .5 up.

Obviously, this only applies to classes that actually have the spellcasting feature, i.e., the Paladin and Ranger should be at least 2nd level, and the Fighter or Rogue should be at least 3rd level.

Such an idea is not novel and already appears in the Artificer, which is explicitly described as having its half-caster levels being rounded up.

From my understanding, this house-rule will mirror the behavior of single class spellcasting of half-casters and third-casters more closely (not entirely – rounding up would mirror it perfectly). Is there any weird edge case that I am missing that would make this house-rule imbalanced in any way?

The only reason I round to nearest integer rather than directly rounding up is that a 4th level Arcane Fighter would contribute as much to the spellcasting as a 4th level half-caster. Although this is what happens in single class, my gut feeling was that this would make dipping 4 levels in a Fighter, for example, be considerably stronger than before, since specifically 4th level also includes an ASI.