## Are these Yuan-Ti’s osssra rules balanced?

I am DMing a homebrew campaign and I created an exotic island ruled by Yuan-ti. I read the Serpent Kingdoms 3rd edition manual and I tried to adapt the osssra table (page 150).

In 5th edition the condition Poisoned tries to simplify the effects of poisons, even if in DMG (pages 257-258) some different poisons and their effects are described. I was actually fascinated by the different osssras’ effect on both Yuan-ti and scaleless ones: collapsing every dangerous effect in the Poisoned condition seemed to me quite inadequate. I thus wrote the following rules.

## Effect of Ossra on Yuan-ti

In order to gain the advantages given by an osssra, a Yuan–ti must inhale osssra’s smoke for at least 4 rounds, except for Hooloond. A bracer spreading osssra’s smoke covers a circular area of 20 ft. radius (as the fog cloud spell) except for Ulathlasss which covers an area of 15 ft. radius (due to its particular "heaviness").

+---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Osssra                    | Effect                                             | Duration              | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Mixed flaming osssra oils | Disadvantage on DEX checks and Ranged attacks      | 2d6+2 rounds          | |                           | (20 CON save, no effect on success)                |                       | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Amasstarte smoke          | Cure Wounds 4d8+8                                  |                       | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Battasss smoke            | Advantage on WIS checks, automatic success         | 10 minutes            | |                           | for Concentration spell checks after taking damage |                       | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Duthlah’hass smoke        | The yuan--ti enters in a dreamsleep state          | 4 Hours.              | |                           | (such as under the \emph{Dream} spell), in which   | Ends on damage taken. | |                           | he can retrieve memories (such as where or how     |                       | |                           | they hid something long ago, or snatches of        |                       | |                           | overheard conversation) and/or receive             |                       | |                           | messages from their deities.                       |                       | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Ektharisss smoke          | Levitate                                           | 10 Minutes            | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Faele smoke               | Advantage on CON saving throws, resistance on      | 4 Hours               | |                           | piercing, bludgeoning and slashing damage          |                       | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Hooloond smoke            | Cure Wounds 1d6+1/round while in contact           | Instantaneous,        | |                           | with the Hooloond smoke                            | max 10 rounds         | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Jalasss smoke             | Immune to Enchantment spells                       | 4 Hours               | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Laerisss smoke            | Advantage on DEX checks and ranged attacks         | 4 Hours               | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Ruusstantar smoke         | 1d12 (inhaled smoke) or 2d12 (contact with         | 4 Hours               | |                           | osssra) Temporary HP                               |                       | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ | Ulathlasss smoke          | Resistance to Fire and Cold damage                 | 4 Hours               | +---------------------------+----------------------------------------------------+-----------------------+ 

## Effect of Ossra on Scaleless Ones

As soon as a scaleless one enters in an area where an osssra smoke is present, they have to make a Constitution saving throw (DC set by the type of osssra in the table below). The effects are active as long as the creature stands in the area covered by the smoke (see previous section for the dimension). If the creature exists the area, it must make a Constitution saving throw or suffer from the secondary effect for 1d4-1 (min. 1) more rounds.

+---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Osssra                    | DC(CON) | Effect on failed save              | Effect on succeeded save       | Price  | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Mixed flaming osssra oils | 20      | 3d4+3 Poison damage, Poisoned      | Disadvantage on DEX checks     | varies | |                           |         |                                    |  and Ranged attacks            |        | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Amasstarte smoke          | 13      | Paralized for 1d4+1 rounds         | Slow 1d4+1 Rounds              | 500    | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Battasss smoke            | 14      | Poisoned                           | Disadvantage on WIS checks     | 800    | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Duthlah’hass smoke        | 15      | Unconscious for 1d4+1 round        | Retching and prone.            | 1200   | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Ektharisss smoke          | 14      | Disadvantage on STR checks         | Disadvantage melee attacks     | 800    | |                           |         | and Disadvantage on melee attacks  |                                |        | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Faele smoke               | 15      | Stunned                            | Disadvantage on CON checks     | 1800   | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Hooloond smoke            | 17      | 4d6 Poison                         | Half damage                    | 1400   | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Jalasss smoke             | 13      | Disadvantage on INT and WIS checks | Disadvantage on INT checks .   | 800    | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Laerisss smoke            | 14      | 2d4 Acid damage,                   | 2d4 Acid Damage                | 300    | |                           |         | Disadvantage on DEX checks         |                                |        | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Ruusstantar smoke         | 15      | 4d4 Poison Damage                  | Half damage                    | 500    | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ | Ulathlasss smoke          | 16      | Paralized for 1d4+1 rounds         | Incapacitated for 1d4+1 rounds | 1800   | +---------------------------+---------+------------------------------------+--------------------------------+--------+ 

## Discussion

I have the following thoughts about what I wrote.

• I tried to follow some logical connections between the effects on Yuan-ti and on scaleless one.
• Are the DCs balanced? Maybe they are quite low, but even in case of a successful saving throw a creature has some disadvantages, hence I thought it was a good way to create a sort of equilibrium.
• I decided to put effects on a successful saving throw because I think that these osssras are very powerful
• Is it ok to make the effect lasting after a creature exits the smoke cloud?
• The cost is very similar to the table of the 3rd edition.
• I rely on the description on Serpent Kingdoms for ingredients, visual aspects and smells of the ossras.

## Why are these two histograms plotting so differently?

I have two lists, which are pretty similar. They are given by:

list1=Flatten[Table[#[[1]], #[[2]]] & /@ {{1, 2},{2, 9},{3, 3},{4,73},{5, 38}}] list2=Flatten[Table[#[[1]], #[[2]]] & /@ {{1, 2},{2, 10},{3, 8},{4,65},{5, 22}}] 

ie. list1 is a list of 2 1’s, 9 2’s, 3 3’s, etc.

If I plot a histogram of them next to each other they come out like this:

{Histogram[list1],Histogram[list2]} 

And I can’t figure out why the labelling is different. I would like to have all of my numbers in the centre of the column, so tried using the answer from this question. as so:

{Histogram[list1,    Ticks -> {{# + .5, #} & /@ HistogramList[list1][[1]], Automatic}],   Histogram[list2,    Ticks -> {{# + .5, #} & /@ HistogramList[list2][[1]], Automatic}]} 

But that comes out like this:

Any idea what’s going on?

## Is there really no “Usenet” these days? Why has everything died out? [closed]

I got onto the Internet after the Eternal September of 1993. I thus never got to experience a time when there was some kind of minimal quality/intelligence in everything posted. Usenet has since at least the year 2000 been a useless ghost town filled with spam, if even that, and no ISP that I know of has been providing even one lousy Usenet server for the last 20+ years now.

It’s not just dead, but has long since been fully turned into dirt and forgotten.

I find that maybe 1/10 questions I ask on Stack Exchange get a useful answer from somebody who knows something, is interested to help, is able to help and actually did read my question. The other 90%, I just sit and waste my time carefully writing a question and jumping through all kinds of annoying hoops to get to finally post it, only to have it closed, deleted or downvoted into oblivion two microseconds after it’s been published. This happens over and over and over, with zero intention by me to do anything but genuinely ask real questions.

Even if Usenet would still exist, it’s no longer possible to register an e-mail account anonymously (no, that which you’re thinking of doesn’t work anymore), and it’s not even possible to pay (with Bitcoin). They all demand to fully track you. But either way, it doesn’t matter since Usenet is dead and I’m not talking about using e-mail anyway.

I’m talking about the idea of a decentralized (not fake-decentralized) network where you can exchange messages and not have to rely on and be terrorized by a central authority with "user accounts" which inevitably can only be registered by "IP addresses that we like" and "verified with SMS/photo id/blood sample".

I want to be able to fire away a JSON with a "title", "body" and "category" strings to somewhere, and then later get to "reap" replies to this message by similar means. No accounts or hoops. Spam would be handled by each user or by connecting to "hubs" that do such processing, for those who can’t or won’t do it themselves.

This would be great, but I’ve not seen anything like it even proposed. I feel utterly crippled and muffled. The only thing which exists now seems to be centralized nonsense services which are impossible to register an account on for anyone who cares to even a minimal extent about their privacy.

Why has everything died out? What’s stopping all these people who have infinitely more resources than I from actually launching such a thing and really promoting it to people like us at first? To get some kind of decentralized message system which doesn’t require mysterious and incomprehensible software and only has two people using it?

For starters, they could simply have a .php script hosted on some https:// URLs and have them exchange incoming messages with each other, as well as let anyone download the (recent) messages sent to them. Wouldn’t that be a super-simple and very doable network?

Why is this not a thing? Why do I have to rely on (fully) centralized services run by extremely dubious people? Why is there not even a theoretical chance of getting a message out into "cyberspace" anymore, through a system identical or similar to what I’ve just described?

## Step up your game with these luxury sneakers

Today adidas Skateboarding introduces their brand-new remodel for the adidas samba classic, featuring the iconic sneaker in a skate-ready build. The Samba ADV features the same look of the Samba loved across the world for decades, but with a more durable and cushioned design for ideal functionality on the board. The upper is built in suede and leather for the classic Samba feel, while the silhouette is upgraded with an internal mesh bootie for dynamic fit, molded heel clip for support, cushioned sockliner, and a redesigned outsole pattern for precision grip.
</br></br>
Ever since its initial launch back in 2015, the Ultra Boost served as a key game changer in the sneaker industry with its premium comfort and notable co-sign by none-other-than Kanye West. Although much of the attention has gone towards the adidas ultra boost 2.0 multicolor as of late, adidas has always shown a knack for revisiting their past silhouettes from time to time. In this instance, they’re gladly welcoming back the Ultra Boost 2.0 dressed with a multicolor motif. Bridging the gap between performance and lifestyle, the low-profile runner is equipped with a breathable Primeknit upper that is intricately painted in rainbow-like fashion and geometrically woven onto its toe box for the signature 2.0 look.
</br></br>
The adidas stan smith all white has seen more than it’s fair share of releases during 2020 while the brand has also given the model a few upgrades. Keeping things clean while pairing with a new look is the adidas Stan Smith Leather Sock ’Triple White’.The adidas Stan Smith stands as a hallmark of court-inspired style, reigning as one of adidas Originals’ signature models. These shoes are a futuristic interpretation of the iconic silhouette with a one-piece upper made from raw leather. Perforated 3-Stripes keep the shoes rooted in adidas’ heritage.
</br></br>
When White Mountaineering walked the runway at Paris Fashion Week last year, there was certainly a lot to digest: their seasoned repertoire of technical garments left little to be desired and the same can unequivocally be said for their latest footwear collaborations. Though Danner was among them — bringing hikers to an audience well removed from the trail — the range’s best in show may be better awarded to their newest offerings with the Three Stripes, pairs of the recently modified adidas lxcon on feet complete with metallic hardware. Utility enhanced, the silhouette adds ease-of-use to its resume, forgoing traditional laces for fasteners akin to Cobra buckles sans its many markings.
</br></br>
The palette, which is reminiscent of previous iterations of the EQT Gazelle or even a newly-surfaced adidas eqt gazelle sneaker, adds a heritage spin to The Three Stripes Brand’s modern foray into basketball. Mesh uppers are clad in “Silver Metallic,” while mixed-material accents across the forefoot, midfoot and heel dabble in “Hi-Res Red” and shades of grey. Profile 3-Stripes and branding on the tongue introduce a classic navy hue into the mix. Underfoot, the sculpted rubber midsole and outsole partake in a red-accented grey and white arrangement while revealing Boost-cushioning.

## Are these homebrew reactions balanced with each other?

I have been working on a homebrew reaction system so that each person can do more throughout the initiative than the very rare opportunity attack or counterspell. I feel as though reactions should be available to all classes, and this is my effort do do this.

Homebrew reactions on Homebrewery

My general design principle for this was to give something thematic to the class and have its effect strength become stronger the rarer it is. For example, allowing a fighter to attack when a creature attacks someone other than him, but only allowing the rogue to attack when someone dies, because a rogue attack will likely be stronger than a fighter’s attack.

I realize this will have some balance implications for the rest of the game, for example making shield and counterspell weaker and not necessarily a must-have. I also realize that this will make the players significantly stronger.

For classes or subclasses within their default PHB rules, I’ve given them an ability that should be of roughly the same power as a reaction, but not a reaction, since they already have one.

## What I am looking for:

• "This feature is much stronger than the others because [the reaction is stronger than you think / the reaction will happen more often than you think / etc]"

• "This feature is much weaker than the others because…"

• "This feature will break some other part of the game [by making x feature moot / by significantly strengthening x feature]"

• "This concept in general will cause the game in general to be unbalanced for x reason"

• "This feature is significantly ambiguous and it could mean two mechanically different things"

## What I am not looking for:

• "This concept in general will slow down combat or make the game less fun to play" (An issue I will be playtesting)

• "This feature doesn’t feel like something x subclass would have" (An issue I will ask my friends)

• "This feature isn’t worded how WotC would word it in 5e" (An issue to address if I decide to publish on dmsguild)

# Reactions or Replacements

## Barbarian

### Path of the Berserker – Approach Me

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to retaliate against those who approach you in melee combat. During your rage, other creatures provoke an opportunity attack when they enter your reach.

### Path of the Totem Warrior – Spectral Blessing

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to grant the blessing of your totem spirit to creatures near you. During yor rage, when a creature begins its turn within 30 feet of you, you may use your reaction to grant them a benefit until the end of their turn based on the totem animal you chose while gaining this feature. You may choose the same animal you selected at 3rd level or a different one.

Bear. Whenever the chosen creature makes an attack, they gain resistance against damage from melee attacks from that creature until the end of their next turn.

Eagle. Whenever the chosen creature makes an attack roll, they don’t provoke opportunity attacks for the rest of the turn.

Wolf. Whenever the chosen creature makes a melee weapon attack, they gain a bonus to the damage roll equal to your Rage Damage.

## Bard

### College of Lore – Improved Cutting Words

When you reach 4th level, you no longer expend Bardic Inspiration when you use Cutting Words. Instead, you can use it a number of times equal to your Charisma modifier (a minimum of once).

### College of Valor – Hit Harder

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to improve the strength of your allies’ strikes. When a creature within 30 feet of you is hit by a weapon attack, you can use your reaction to give a bonus to the damage roll equal to half your Bard level.

## Cleric

### Knowledge Domain – Quick Recall

When you reach 4th level, you learn how to better apply your smarts to the battlefield. When a creature you can see and haven’t used this feature on starts its turn within 60 feet, you may use your reaction to make a Knowledge check (DM’s choice) to determine aspects of the creature. The DC is 10 + the creature’s Challenge Rating, or Level if the creature has class levels. If you succeed, you learn the creature’s AC, their highest saving throw, and any resistances, immunities, and vulnerabilities they may have.

### Life Domain – Shield the Faithful

When you reach 4th level, your god grants you the ability to protect others from harm. When another creature within 30 feet of you takes damage, you may use your reaction to reduce that damage by half of your Cleric level, rounded up. This can’t reduce the damage below zero.

### Light Domain – Sun’s Blessing

At 4th level, when you cast a spell of first level or higher that deals fire or radiant damage, you deal additional damage of that type equal to half of your Wisdom modifier, rounded up (minimum of 1).

### Nature Domain – Abhor Unnatural

When you reach 4th level, your Channel Divinity: Turn Undead also works on the creature types aberration, celestial, elemental, fey, and fiend, in addition to undead.

### Tempest Domain – Storm’s Blessing

When you reach 4th level, when you cast a spell of first level or higher that deals lightning or thunder damage, you deal additional damage of that type equal to half of your Wisdom modifier, rounded up (minimum of 1).

### Trickery Domain – Degrading Miss

When you reach 4th level, your god grants you the ability to affect others when they fail to draw your blood. When a creature within 30 feet of you misses you with an attack, you may use your reaction to impose disadvantage on that creature’s attack rolls until the start of its next turn.

### War Domain – Divine Defenses

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to invoke your god’s power to prevent further harm to yourself. When a creature hits you with a weapon attack, you may use your reaction to add your Wisdom modifier to your AC for the rest of the turn.

## Druid

### Circle of the Land – Manipulate Terrain

When you reach 4th level, your connection with the land manifests in harsh winds, churned earth, and roiling sea near you. When a creature moves to an area within 15 feet of you, you may use you reaction to create difficult terrain in a sphere with a raidus of 15 feet centered on yourself until the end of the turn.

### Circle of the Moon – Feral Instincts

When you reach 4th level, your more animalistic instincts take over while wild-shaped. While wild-shaped, when a creature at maximum hit points takes damage, you may use your reaction to move up to your speed towards the creature. Then, if the creature is within your reach, you may make an opportunity attack against it.

## Fighter

### Champion – Strive for the Best

When you reach 4th level, your determination to be the best of the best makes sure no one can outshine you. When a creature other than you lands a critical hit, you may make one weapon attack with advantage as a reaction.

### Battle Master – Face Me!

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to exploit the distractions of your enemies. As a bonus action, you can Mark a creature until that creature falls unconcious or you cannot see it. When a Marked creature makes an attack against a creature other than you, you may use your reaction to make a weapon attack against the Marked target. You may only have one creature Marked at once, and a creature may only be Marked by one creature.

### Eldritch Knight – Spell Recognition

When you reach 4th level, you have some rudamentary understanding of defensive magic and can shield yourself with it. When a spell is cast by a creature within 5 feet of you, you may use your reaction to gain resistance to the damage of the spell this turn.

## Monk

When you reach 4th level, you are able to avoid being moved around against your will. When you would be moved any distance, you may instead move only half that distance.

### Oath of Devotion – Protect the Good

When you reach 4th level, your loyalty an attention to your allies allows you to protect them in more and more ways. When a creature within 10 feet of you is hit with an attack, you may use your reaction to grant that creature the effects of sanctuary until the end of the turn.

### Oath of the Ancients – Nature’s Wrap

When you reach 4th level, your attunement with nature extends to protection of your allies. When an ally within 10 feet of you is hit with a melee attack, you may use your reaction to force the attacker to make a Strength saving throw versus your spell save DC. On a failed save, the attacker is restrained until the end of the turn as vines coil around the creature’s body.

### Oath of Vengeance – Answered Sleight

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to retaliate more effectively against those that would dare harm who you care about. When a creature within 10 feet of you is hit with a melee attack, you may use your reaction to move up to 10 feet and make a melee attack against the attacker, if able.

## Ranger

### Hunter – Prey’s Vulnerability

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to more effectively take advantage of your target’s weaknesses. When you hit a creature with a weapon attack, you may Mark that creature until the start of your next turn. While a creature is Marked in this way, if it makes an attack against any other creature than you, you may use your reaction to make a weapon attack against the Marked creature. You may only have one creature Marked at once, and a creature may only be Marked by one creature.

### Beast Master – Beast’s Bond

When you reach 4th level, your bond with your companion allows you to retaliate against those who wrong it. When a creature deals damage to your beast companion, you may use your reaction to make an attack against that creature.

## Rogue

### Thief – Nimble Swipe

When you reach 4th level, your nimble fingers allow you to disrupt others while fighting. When a hostile creature you can see moves out of your reach, you may use your reaction to try to swipe an object from the creature. If you do so, make a sleight of hand check contested by their athletics or acrobatics check. If you win, you can take an object from them that you could wield or put away with the Use an Object action. For example, you could take a weapon, arcane focus, or potion, but you could not take a shield or armor.

A creature can avoid provoking this reaction by taking the Disengage action. They also don’t provoke this reaction when they teleport or when someone or something moves them without using their movement, action, or reaction.

### Assassin – Lethal Response

When you reach 4th level, you can pay more attention to your target’s lives and are motivated by their deaths. When a creature you’ve dealt damage to dies, you may use your reaction to make an attack against another creature.

### Arcane Trickster – Distracting Gesture

When you reach 4th level, you can manipulate your mage hand in more complex ways. When a creature within 5 feet of your mage hand casts a spell, you may use your reaction to attempt to break their incantation. If you do, make an ability check using your spellcasting ability contested by their concentration check. If you win, the creature’s spell fails and has no effect.

## Sorcerer

### Draconic Bloodline – Elemental Infusion

When you reach 4th level, you can assist an ally by allowing them to tap into your elemental power. When a creature other than you damages an enemy, you may use your reaction to deal additional damage to that enemy. If the triggering damage is the type associated with your draconic ancestry, the additional damage is equal to your sorcerer level. Otherwise, the additional damage is equal to half of your sorcerer level, rounded up. Either way, the additional damage is the type associated with your draconic ancestry.

### Wild Magic – Bend Luck

You gain the Wild Magic Bend Luck feature when you reach 4th level.

When you reach 6th level, the sorcery point cost of Bend Luck reduces from 2 to 1.

## Warlock

### The Archfey – Misty Escape

You gain the Archfey Misty Escape feature at 4th level.

When you reach 6th level, you may use it an additional time per long rest.

### The Fiend – Fiendish Retaliation

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to lash out at those who harm you. You can choose one damage type when you finish a short or long rest. When a creature hits you with a melee attack, you may use your reaction to deal damage to that creature of the chosen type. The amount of damage is equal to half of your warlock level, rounded up.

When you reach 10th level, you may choose the same or different damage types for Fiendish Retaliation and Fiendish Resistance.

### The Great Old One – Mind Warp

When you reach 4th level, you can force a creature to see unknowable and horrifying sights when it harms you. When a creature hits you with a melee attack, you may use your reaction to Blind the creature until the start of its next turn or until it takes damage.

## Wizard

### Abjuration – Improved Ward

When you reach 4th level, your arcane ward continues to improve. When you create your magical ward, it has hit points equal to three times your wizard level + your Intelligence modifier. Whenever you cast an abjuration spell of 1st level or higher, the ward regains a number of hit points equal to three times the level of the spell.

### Conjuration – Instinctive Jump

When you reach 4th level, you react to danger by teleporting to safety temporarily. When a creature moves within 5 feet of you, you may use your reaction to teleport to a location you can see within 30 feet. At the end of the turn, you return to the space that you vanished from, if it is unoccupied, or the nearest unoccupied space (chosen at random if more than one space is equally near.

### Divination – See Failure

When you reach 4th level, you gain the ability to influence events by seeing a negative future. When a creature you can see makes a Saving Throw against a spell you did not cast, you can use your reaction to impose disadvantage on their saving throw. You can use this feature a number of times equal to your Intelligence modifier (minimum of 1). When you finish a long rest, you regain all expended uses.

### Enchantment – Potent Charm

When you reach 4th level, your enchantment spells bypass some natural resistances of certain creatures. If a creature would normally have advantage on saving throws against being charmed, it does not benefit from that feature when resisting your spells.

### Evocation – Elemental Defenses

When you reach 4th level, your knowledge of the elements give you an edge up aginst those that use the elemental magics. When you take Acid, Cold, Fire, Lightning, Poison, or Thunder damage, you may use your reaction to gain resistance against that damage type until the start of your next turn.

### Illusion – Question Reality

When you reach 4th level, you can harm those who touch your illusions as they doubt their existence.

When a creature touches an illusion you’ve created, you may use your reaction to force them to make an Intelligence saving throw. On a failure, they take psychic damage equal to your wizard level.

When a creature fails a check to see through an illusion you’ve created, you may use your reaction to deal psychic damage to them equal to your wizard level.

### Necromancy – Shift Pain

When you reach 4th level, you can relocate some of the damage you take to your minions. When you take damage, you may use your reaction to have a willing creature within 30 feet take that damage instead, reduced by half your wizard level, rounded up.

### Transmutation – Swap Elements

When you reach 4th level, you learn how to change the elements instinctively. When a creature other than you casts a spell that deals Acid, Cold, Fire, Lightning, Poison, or Thunder damage, you may use your reaction to change one of those damage types from that spell to another from that list. For example, you could change fireball to deal cold damage instead of fire, or have meteor swarm deal lightning and bludgeoning damage instead of fire and bludgeoning.

## Why are these BVH split heuristic formulas different?

I’ve been doing some research into changing the split heuristic I use for a work project comprised of a BVH binary tree.

The heuristic I currently use is centroid median as described here, but I seek to use the surface area heuristic (SAH) now. Several papers denote the cost function for determining the split as:

$$c(A, B) = t_{trav} + p_{A}\sum_{i=1}^{N_{A}}t_{isect}(a_{i}) + p_{B}\sum_{i=1}^{N_{B}}t_{isect}(b_{i})$$

Notionally it is described in detail here, but to summarize, it is the cost of a ray intersect of primitives at this split.

However, I’ve seen an optimization technique, described as "binning", where $$K$$ pre-determined bins are computed and therefore the cost function for determining the split is:

$$c(A, B) = A_{a}N_{a} + A_{b}N_{b}$$

This is outlined here in Section 3.1, as well is several other documents (1, 2, 3).

What’s the rational/reasoning behind these two different cost models?

## How do I stop these events on my iPhone?

I am experiencing battery drain, overheating, spiked data/processor usage, unauthorized changes on my device and online accounts.

I have tried changing phones, numbers SIM Cards and Apple ID’s, passwords, a PI forensics lab, and an Apple store.

Looking for a fresh start.

## Is my VPN traffic really being routed through all these strange networks? [closed]

I use the client of a reputed paid VPN company. With each server location I connect to, the log tells me I am instead connecting to networks completely unrelated to the company and the country of the VPN location. But when I check my external IP address, my expected VPN location is returned. So it appears that my traffic is being routed (and logged?) through these strange networks, yet when I try to block them in the firewall, it still connects successfully, making me wonder if I am not connecting to these networks after all or if the firewall is unable to block the connections. Even if no shady routing (MitM) is actually taking place, the question remains: why are those IP addresses showing up in my logs? The signatures of both the VPN client and OpenVPN are valid.

I contacted support, and although they expressed concern, I couldn’t get any explanation in 30 minutes of chatting.

Here’s a redacted transcript of a log. Is there a possibility that my traffic isn’t actually being routed through those networks?

==============================================

Connecting to Some VPN country - Some VPN city, ip: **SPOOKY IP**, protocol: tcp ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:01 2020 OpenVPN 2.4.7  ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:01 2020 MANAGEMENT: TCP Socket listening on [AF_INET]127.0.0.1:55583 ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:01 2020 Outgoing Control Channel Authentication: Using 512 bit message hash 'SHA512' for HMAC authentication Sat Jul 25 15:47:01 2020 Incoming Control Channel Authentication: Using 512 bit message hash 'SHA512' for HMAC authentication Sat Jul 25 15:47:01 2020 TCP/UDP: Preserving recently used remote address: [AF_INET]**SPOOKY IP**:443 ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:01 2020 Attempting to establish TCP connection with [AF_INET]**SPOOKY IP**:443 [nonblock] Sat Jul 25 15:47:02 2020 TCP connection established with [AF_INET]**SPOOKY IP**:443 Sat Jul 25 15:47:02 2020 TCP_CLIENT link local: (not bound) Sat Jul 25 15:47:02 2020 TCP_CLIENT link remote: [AF_INET]**SPOOKY IP**:443 Sat Jul 25 15:47:02 2020 TLS: Initial packet from [AF_INET]**SPOOKY IP**:443, sid=xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx ...  Sat Jul 25 15:47:02 2020 Peer Connection Initiated with [AF_INET]**SPOOKY IP**:443 ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 PUSH: Received control message: 'PUSH_REPLY,redirect-gateway def1,dhcp-option DNS 10.151.0.1,route 10.151.0.1,topology net30,ping 10,ping-restart 60,socket-flags TCP_NODELAY,ifconfig 10.151.0.102 10.151.0.101,peer-id 0,cipher xxx-xxx-xxx' ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 OPTIONS IMPORT: data channel crypto options modified Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 Data Channel: using negotiated cipher 'xxx-xxx-xxx' Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 NCP: overriding user-set keysize with default ... Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 Opening utun (connect(AF_SYS_CONTROL)): Resource busy (errno=16) Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 Opening utun (connect(AF_SYS_CONTROL)): Resource busy (errno=16) Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 Opened utun device utun2 Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/ifconfig utun2 delete Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 NOTE: Tried to delete pre-existing tun/tap instance -- No Problem if failure Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/ifconfig utun2 10.151.0.102 10.151.0.101 mtu 1500 netmask 255.255.255.255 up ... ifconfig: ioctl (SIOCDIFADDR): Can't assign requested address  DNS setting update type: up DNS setting update type: up, completed  Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/route add -net **SPOOKY IP** 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.255 add net **SPOOKY IP**: gateway 192.168.1.1 Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/route add -net 0.0.0.0 10.151.0.101 128.0.0.0 add net 0.0.0.0: gateway 10.151.0.101 Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/route add -net 128.0.0.0 10.151.0.101 128.0.0.0 add net 128.0.0.0: gateway 10.151.0.101 Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/route add -net 0.0.0.0 10.151.0.101 128.0.0.0 route: writing to routing socket: File exists add net 0.0.0.0: gateway 10.151.0.101: File exists Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/route add -net 128.0.0.0 10.151.0.101 128.0.0.0 route: writing to routing socket: File exists add net 128.0.0.0: gateway 10.151.0.101: File exists Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 /sbin/route add -net 10.151.0.1 10.151.0.101 255.255.255.255 add net 10.151.0.1: gateway 10.151.0.101 Sat Jul 25 15:47:03 2020 Initialization Sequence Completed  

## What’s exactly my router querying on these addresses?

I’m trying to understand how my router works so I’m analyzing a couple of outputs (I logged in through SSH). I get these lines when trying netstat -a -e, and I’m not sure where do these addresses come from, or what they are exactly doing.

The xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx is the IP address that my router gets from the ISP router (WAN).

tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:50689 a104-75-170-17.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:50695 a104-75-170-17.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:35877 a104-75-170-56.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:35883 a104-75-170-56.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:35876 a104-75-170-56.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:50688 a104-75-170-17.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED    tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:50696 a104-75-170-17.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  tcp  0 0 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:50697 a104-75-170-17.deploy.static.akamaitechnologies.com:www ESTABLISHED  

## Are these two methods of handling Elven Accuracy “Double Advantage” mathematically equivalent?

For context, part of the Elven Accuracy feat (Xanathar’s Guide to Everything, p. 74) states:

Whenever you have advantage on an attack roll using Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma, you can reroll one of the dice once.

So the obvious way to handle this, mechanically, is to roll two dice, pick the lowest, and roll it again. But as an effort to save time, I’ve proposed instead simply rolling three dice simultaneously, and picking the highest rolled value.

The problem is that I’m not certain that this is mathematically correct.

I created a code simulation that was intended to model the probability curve of both methods, and it suggests that the two methods are mathematically equivalent, but the simulation only performs direct sampling of random numbers and their results; it has unavoidable error in the results, and it doesn’t attempt to solve the underlying mathematical principles involved.

//Roll 3, pick highest ResultSet: Double Advantage      Average: 15.48246                                                                                                      Variance: 14.94721234837884                                                                                            Std. Deviation: 3.8661624834425727                                                                                     95% range: [6, 20]                                                                                                     Mode: 20                                                                                                               Median: 16         //Roll 2, reroll lowest, pick highest ResultSet: Alternate Double Advantage                                                                                      Average: 15.488486                                                                                                     Variance: 14.944649427739675                                                                                           Std. Deviation: 3.8658310138623073                                                                                     95% range: [6, 20]                                                                                                     Mode: 20                                                                                                               Median: 16             

Is it correct to say that these two dice-rolling methods are equivalent, or should I stick to the RAW interpretation of how these dice should be rolled?

For full context, I’m planning out a build for a Shadow Sorcerer that fights only in melee combat, and if this character has the ability to nearly-permanently shroud themselves in Darkness (which is one of their class features), it’ll give them nearly permanent Advantage against creatures that don’t have Devil’s Sight or Truesight (or a reliable, spammable Counterspell/Dispel Magic). So simplifying this roll can matter in terms of time saved.