## Does anyone know what this encoding format for passwords is? I think it is a decimal array but I can’t seem to convert it

During a penetration test, I ran across a server that was storing passwords in its database in what seems to be a binary array of sorts:

``password_table  1,10,11,21,21,11,21,13,00,00,00,000 11,61,19,11,46,108,09,100 110,118,100,107,108,117,123,62,108,108,62,62 ``

(slightly edited for confidentiality)

The server in question is a Tomcat server and the application is running a Java program. I considered that this might be a array of sorts but I can’t seem to convert these arrays into anything readable or usable. Does anyone have any ideas?

## Is this 9th-level spell Find Greatest Steed balanced with respect to other 9th-level spells?

Since the paladin gets the spells find steed and find greater steed, it only seemed natural to take this theme to its logical end: find greatest steed:

FIND GREATEST STEED
9th-level conjuration

Casting Time: 10 minutes
Range: 30 feet
Components: V, S
Duration: Instantaneous

You summon a spirit that assumes the form of the loyalest, majestic-est mount. Appearing in an unoccupied space within range, the spirit takes on a form you choose: a unicorn, a bulette, a felidar, or a nightmare. The creature has the statistics provided in the appropriate statblock for the chosen form, though it is a celestial, a fey, or a fiend (your choice) instead of its normal creature type. Additionally, if it has an Intelligence score of 7 or lower, its Intelligence becomes 8, and it gains the ability to understand one language of your choice that you speak.

You control the mount in combat. While the mount is within 1 mile of you, you can communicate with it telepathically. While mounted on it, you can make any spell you cast that targets only you also target the mount.

The mount disappears temporarily when it drops to 0 hit points or when you dismiss it as an action. Casting this spell again re-summons the bonded mount, with all its hit points restored and any conditions removed.

You can’t have more than one mount bonded by this spell or find steed at the same time. As an action, you can release a mount from its bond, causing it to disappear permanently.

Whenever the mount disappears, it leaves behind any objects it was wearing or carrying.

A mount summoned with this spell cannot take legendary actions. If it normally would have legendary actions, on its turn, it can use its action to take one of its legendary actions.

A paladin can cast this spell consuming two 5th-level spell slots, instead of one 9th-level spell slot.

This spell would appear only on the Paladin spell list, and could be prepared and cast by a paladin once the paladin was 19th-level. Additionally, this spell would be available to an 18th level Bard via magical secrets. I think this spell only being available to 18th level and higher characters is going to be enough to balance it. Compared to true polymorph, the effects here actually seem pretty modest for a 9th level spell; and for the paladin, casting is always going to be limited to once per long rest, as it uses up all of their highest level spell slots.

The mounts I have chosen range from CR 3 to CR 5. The original 2nd-level spell find steed mounts range from CR 1/8 to CR 1/2, and the now penultimate 4th-level spell find greater steed provides mounts ranging from CR 1 to CR 2. These two spells are given a comparative analysis in this answer. This CR 3-5 range seems like an appropriate increase in power, but as with both its predecessors, some of these greatest steeds will be less greatest than others. I’ve carefully chosen four creatures for this spell, I feel that each brings something unique to the table, even though one of them seems to be a head above the rest. Speaking of which…

### The Unicorn (CR 5)

If I’m being totally honest, this spell could have been called find unicorniest steed. The unicorn is easily the best mount on the list. It is not the best damage dealer, not even close, but the utility and support the unicorn provides is unparalleled by other creatures on this list. It can cast pass without trace at will, and its ability healing touch is equivalent to a 2nd-level cure wounds twice a day.

The unicorn is the only creature on the list with legendary actions. I felt that giving the unicorn unbridled access to its legendary actions was too much. Additionally, its just easier to keep track of things when I’m not keeping up with my own turn, my mount’s turn, and legendary actions for my mount on other turns. Instead, the unicorn can opt to use one of its legendary actions on its turn. In particular the unicorn’s shimmering shield ability is quite good, and allows the unicorn to excel in its support role.

### The Bulette (CR 5)

This guy is the bruiser of the group. At +7 to hit for 4d12+4 damage, the bulette’s bite attack hits like a truck, and AC 17 averaging 93 hp gives him respectable staying power. The bulette really gets interesting with his movement: burrow 40 ft. If you’re nostalgic about catching your first diglet in a cave outside of Vermilion City, the bulette is for you.

### The Felidar (CR 5)

The felidar packs a similar punch to the bulette with identical AC and hitpoints, but the felidar is for the more psychically minded adventurer. The felidar has the ability to form a special bond with another creature, granting these benefits:

• The felidar can sense the direction and distance to the bonded creature if they’re on the same plane of existence.

• As an action, the felidar or the bonded creature can sense what the other sees and hears, during which time it loses its own sight and hearing. This effect lasts until the start of its next turn.

Similar combat prowess as the bulette, but has some interesting abilities that make the felidar an excellent scout and great insurance policy if his owner gets kidnapped.

### The Nightmare (CR 3)

This goth version of the pegasus features an ability that makes it better than his winged celestial brother, earning him a spot on this list. For the most part, the nightmare is identical to the pegasus, which makes him probably the weakest choice on this list. But the nightmare has one ability the earns him his place here:

Ethereal Stride. The nightmare and up to three willing creatures within 5 feet of it magically enter the Ethereal Plane from the Material Plane, or vice versa.

This guy can disappear to the ethereal plane at will. And he can bring his three closest friends. The utility of this ability is limited only by your imagination and how annoyed your DM is that your flaming horse can walk through walls.

## Are there any game breaking consequences in this multiclass house rule?

So, as stated in that question, I feel that it is quite weird that a 3rd level paladin + 2nd level Ranger is not equivalent to a 5th level Half-caster (such as a 5th level Paladin), but weaker (being equivalent to a 4th level Paladin).

With that in mind, I intend to use the following multiclassing house-rule for determining the spell slots:

• Sum the levels of the half-casters first. So, in the example, 3 + 2 = 5.
• Divide by two. (Divide by three for Arcane Fighter/Rogue – both after summing them together as well).
• Round it to closest integers, rounding .5 up.

Obviously, this only applies to classes that actually have the spellcasting feature, i.e., the Paladin and Ranger should be at least 2nd level, and the Fighter or Rogue should be at least 3rd level.

Such an idea is not novel and already appears in the Artificer, which is explicitly described as having its half-caster levels being rounded up.

From my understanding, this house-rule will mirror the behavior of single class spellcasting of half-casters and third-casters more closely (not entirely – rounding up would mirror it perfectly). Is there any weird edge case that I am missing that would make this house-rule imbalanced in any way?

The only reason I round to nearest integer rather than directly rounding up is that a 4th level Arcane Fighter would contribute as much to the spellcasting as a 4th level half-caster. Although this is what happens in single class, my gut feeling was that this would make dipping 4 levels in a Fighter, for example, be considerably stronger than before, since specifically 4th level also includes an ASI.

## What’s the cost of this infusion?

At 13th level, the kinetic knight gains the following ability:

At 13th level as a swift action, she can accept 2 points of burn to unleash a kinetic blast with the blade rush infusion.

I am now level 14, with Infusion specialization 4, which allows me to reduce the burn cost of an infusion by 4.

Does using this ability cost me 0 (2 from the ability + 2 from the normal blade rush – 4) or 2 burn that I have to take no matter what, then 2-4 =0 for the normal blade rush ?

At first it looks like a better pounce for free, but if it costs 2 burn everytime I want to use it, it will lose value pretty fast.

## Is this homebrew entropic spear balanced?

I have created a magical entropic spear that I plan to give to the party when they reach roughly 10th level. Is this balanced?

### Entropic Spear

Weapon (spear), rare

This is a +2 magical weapon. On a critical hit, this spear does an extra 2d6 damage of a random type. Roll a d10 on the table below to determine the type:

1. Acid
2. Cold
3. Fire
4. Force
5. Lightning
6. Necrotic
7. Poison
8. Psychic
10. Thunder

This spear has 5 charges, regaining 1d4+1 charges at dawn. As a reaction, when an attack hits you, you can expend 1 or more charges to reduce the damage by 1d6 per charge spent. You can only reduce damage of a type that appears on the above table. If you use the last charge, roll a d20 after applying the effects of the item. On a 1, the spear crumbles into dust and cannot be repaired.

## How safe is dm-crypt/LUKS? Would TPM make me more secure in this case?

I’ve been looking to purchase a new laptop and I need to have security in mind. I’ve specifically been looking for laptops with discrete or integrated TPM because it’s been my understanding that TPM would improve disk encryption security, but after doing some more research I’ve heard a lot of sources saying that it doesn’t really make a difference and some go so far as to suggest TPM has unpatched vulnerabilities and may even be backdoored by intelligence agencies such as the NSA.

For someone such as myself who is becoming more active in activism and investigative journalism, should I bother with TPM? And how safe is dm-crypt/LUKS? I currently use Linux Mint which I believe uses LUKS by default for disk encryption and I’m wondering how vulnerable it is to attackers with physical access to my laptop.

(P.S I’ve heard of Qubes but at the moment I’m unable to use it. In my case I’ll be using Linux Mint + AppArmor and sometimes Whonix when appropriate.)

## How can I make this homebrew Elder Aboleth the CR rating I want it to be?

A party I’m running for are going up against an aboleth as a late-game "boss" (but not the "final boss"). They are currently Tier 4, level 17 to be precise, so a basic CR 10 aboleth is not going to stand up against them and will not be a climax I’m hoping for in this part of the adventure.

So, I’ve decided to boost the stats of the aboleth, increasing it to CR 22, which should serve as a better challenge for the party (they will have help, and have magic items aplenty, so I’m aware that this CR is above what the DMG, p. 82, thinks will be a deadly encounter for a party of four level 17 PCs).

I’ve used the guidance in the DMG, pp. 274-279, to try to modify the Aboleth’s stats so that it would be considered a CR 22 creature. I wanted it to still "feel" like an aboleth, so the Actions and abilities it has are unchanged, only the numbers (AC, HP, attack bonus, damage, DCs, etc) are different. Also, I intend for it to have access to the lair actions (the DCs of which will also be increased from DC 14 to DC 17) listed in the Monster Manual, if that makes any difference.

I’ve tried to keep the new numbers relative to the old numbers. For example, the RAW aboleth’s AC is 17, which matches what the table in the DMG suggests, so I went with the table’s suggestion of 19 for a CR 22 creature; however, the RAW aboleth has rather low HP for a CR 10 creature, so I gave it less than what the table suggested. Another example is the save DCs; 14 is rather low for a CR 10 creature, so I simply increased them by the proficiency bonus difference (CR 10 creatures have +4, and CR 22 creatures should have +7, so I increased the DCs by 3), which again resulted in a below average save DC for my new stats.

For the ability scores, I left DEX alone, but increased the mental stats (INT/WIS/CHA) by 4. Why 4? Because, as a comparison, the Red Dragon has different versions of different CRs (Young is CR 10, Ancient is CR 24, which is close enough to what I’m doing) and noticed that all the mental scores were 4 points higher, so I copied that pattern. With STR, I increased that to suit the attack bonuses according to the DMG tables, and CON was increased similarly for HP in accordance to the DMG tables (or rather, about roughly ⅔ of the recommended lower bound, going by the RAW aboleth’s HP).

Below is my attempt to make a CR 22 aboleth, which I’ve called the "Elder Aboleth" (so that it being stronger makes some kind of sense), and have made it Huge rather than Large to further justify its additional strength:

# Elder Aboleth

Huge aberration, lawful evil

Armor Class 19 (Natural Armor)
Hit Points 276 (24d12 + 120)
Speed 10 ft., swim 40 ft.

STR        DEX        CON        INT        WIS        CHA
22 (+6)      9 (-1)      20 (+5)    22 (+6)    19 (+4)    22 (+6)

Saving Throws CON +12, INT +13, WIS +11
Skills History +20, Perception +20
Senses Darkvision 120 ft., Passive Perception 30
Languages Deep Speech, Telepathy 120 ft.
Challenge 22 (41,000 XP)

Amphibious. The aboleth can breathe air and water.

Mucous Cloud. While underwater, the aboleth is surrounded by transformative mucus. A creature that touches the aboleth or that hits it with a melee attack while within 5 feet of it must make a DC 17 Constitution saving throw. On a failure, the creature is diseased for 1d4 hours. The diseased creature can breathe only underwater.

Probing Telepathy. If a creature communicates telepathically with the aboleth, the aboleth learns the creature’s greatest desires if the aboleth can see the creature.

## Actions

Multiattack. The aboleth makes three tentacle attacks.

Tentacle. Melee Weapon Attack: +13 to hit, reach 10 ft., one target. Hit: 25 (3d10 + 6) bludgeoning damage. If the target is a creature, it must succeed on a DC 17 Constitution saving throw or become diseased. The disease has no effect for 1 minute and can be removed by any magic that cures disease. After 1 minute, the diseased creature’s skin becomes translucent and slimy, the creature can’t regain hit points unless it is underwater, and the disease can be removed only by heal or another disease-curing spell of 6th level or higher. When the creature is outside a body of water, it takes 6 (1d12) acid damage every 10 minutes unless moisture is applied to the skin before 10 minutes have passed.

Tail. Melee Weapon Attack: +13 to hit, reach 10 ft. one target. Hit: 32 (4d10 + 6) bludgeoning damage.

Enslave (3/Day). The aboleth targets one creature it can see within 30 feet of it. The target must succeed on a DC 17 Wisdom saving throw or be magically charmed by the aboleth until the aboleth dies or until it is on a different plane of existence from the target. The charmed target is under the aboleth’s control and can’t take reactions, and the aboleth and the target can communicate telepathically with each other over any distance.

Whenever the charmed target takes damage, the target can repeat the saving throw. On a success, the effect ends. No more than once every 24 hours, the target can also repeat the saving throw when it is at least 1 mile away from the aboleth.

## Legendary Actions

The aboleth can take 3 legendary actions, choosing from the options below. Only one legendary action option can be used at a time and only at the end of another creature’s turn. The aboleth regains spent legendary actions at the start of its turn.

Detect. The aboleth makes a Wisdom (Perception) check.

Tail Swipe. The aboleth makes one tail attack.

Psychic Drain (Costs 2 Actions). One creature charmed by the aboleth takes 28 (8d6) psychic damage, and the aboleth regains hit points equal to the damage the creature takes.

At the end of all of this, I then compare what I’ve done, trying to keep it relative to the RAW aboleth, regarding how well (or badly) it adheres to the average for its CR, to the "Average Challenge Rating" of pp. 274-275. But what I’ve come up with feels like it’s lower than CR 22 due to the lower damage output, lower save DCs and lower HP.

What have I done wrong? What would I need to do to make this creature a CR 22 creature, but still keeping the same relative strengths and weaknesses that the RAW aboleth has compared to the DMG table so that it still "feels" like an aboleth?

## How can follow this this guide to construct a graph with matrix/reachability

Let’s we have k matrices. For example we have 3 now, where first one is 8×5 ($$a_1$$ x $$b_1$$), second one is 5 x 6 ($$a_2$$ x $$b_2$$) and last one is 6 x 8 ($$a_3$$ x $$b_3$$). And our goal is to figure out if possible to multiply within any given matrices and reach a matrix of dimension x and y, when x and y is given ahead of time. In this example, (8×5) x (5×6) x (6×8), end up a 8×8 matrix. The hints is given, but I cannot visualize. Any more help is appreciated. can understand the first step, but have not idea about the second one.

First, we can define nodes in the graph as the values of each $$a_i$$ and each $$b_i$$, and put an edge from $$a_i$$ to $$b_i$$.

Second, Whenever there is a chain of matrices $$M_{i1},…M_{ik}$$, we can multiply, then x=$$a_{i1}$$ has an edge to $$b_{i1} =a_{i2}$$, and $$a_{i2}$$ has an edge to $$b_{i2}$$ =$$a_{i3}$$, and so on, up until $$b_{ik}$$ =y. So there could be a path from x to y in this graph.

Third, Inversely, for any path from x to y, the edges form a chain of matrices that we can multiply, which create a x x y matrix. therefore, x is reachable from y in the graph iff there is a chain of matrices which from the x x y matrix.

The first step create something like this ?

``>  x-->  > n8-->n5 > n5-->n6  > n6-->n8 >   -->y ``

What is $$M_{i1}$$, $$a_{i1}$$ and $$b_{i1}$$? How does that differ to $$a_{1}$$ ?

## How to chang this query from PDO to SQLi?

I am trying to get user’s information and show them in user’s profile. And i found this query but it is in PDO and my work is in sqli here the query if(isset(\$ _SESSION[‘user’])){ \$ getuser=\$ con->prepare("SELECT * From users where username=?"); \$ getuser->execute(array(\$ sessionuser)); Sinfo=\$ getuser->fetch();

And here the whole code

prepare(“SELECT * From users where username=?”); \$ getuser->execute(array(\$ sessionuser)); Sinfo=\$ getuser->fetch(); ?> Username: Email: Register Date: Password:

## How do I write a tooltip for this list of cities?

``distanceToSanFrancisco[s_] :=   QuantityMagnitude[   TravelDistance[cityList[[859]], Interpreter["City"][s]]] (* table1 takes a while to run on my system*) table1 = Table[{cityList[[k]],      distanceToSanFrancisco[cityList[[k]]]}, {k, Length[cityList]}]; citiesWithin[range_] :=   Module[{s = {}},    Do[If[table1[[k, 2]] <= range, s = Join[s, {cityList[[k]]}]], {k,      Length[cityList]}]; s] (*This lists all cities in California that are within `range` of San Francisco.*) radius = 25; tolerance = 0.05; a1 = GeoDisk[    QuantityMagnitude[     LatitudeLongitude[Interpreter["City"]["San Francisco"]]],    Quantity[radius, "Miles"]]; a3 =   Complement[    citiesWithin[radius*(1 + tolerance)],    citiesWithin[radius*(1 - tolerance)]    ]; Table[a3[[k]] -> distanceToSanFrancisco[a3[[k]]], {k, 1, Length[a3]}] Show[a2, GeoListPlot[a3, PlotMarkers -> Point], ImageSize -> Medium] ``

This last one is what I want the tooltips on. For the red points around San Francisco, ideally I would like to get just city name. TIA