Do monsters with a spellcasting trait get spell slots back after a long rest?

Some monsters, like a lich, have the Spellcasting trait. This trait allows such monsters to cast spells using spell slots, much as spellcaster player characters do.

However, taking the lich as an example, the trait does not mention how spell slots are regained (I’m ignoring their Lair Actions for the purposes of this question). Looking at the general rules on monsters’ Spellcasting trait in the Special Traits section:

Spellcasting

A monster with the Spellcasting class feature has a spellcaster level and spell slots, which it uses to cast its spells of 1st level and higher. The spellcaster level is also used for any cantrips included in the feature.

The monster has a list of spells known or prepared from a specific class. The list might also include spells from a feature in that class, such as the Divine Domain feature of the cleric or the Druid Circle feature of the druid. The monster is considered a member of that class when attuning to or using a magic item that requires membership in the class or access to its spell list.

A monster can cast a spell from its list at a higher level if it has the spell slot to do so. For example, a drow mage with the 3rd-level lightning bolt spell can cast it as a 5th-level spell by using one of its 5th-level spell slots.

You can change the spells that a monster knows or has prepared, replacing any spell on its spell list with a spell of the same level and from the same class list. If you do so, you might cause the monster to be a greater or lesser threat than suggested by its challenge rating.

There is no mention of spells slots coming back on a long rest. Elsewhere in the general rules, this is explicitly mentioned for other traits (such as X/Day traits):

For example, "1/Day" means a special ability can be used once and that the monster must finish a long rest to use it again.

It’s reasonable to assume that monsters with the Spellcasting trait do probably get their spell slots back on a long rest because that’s how it works for PCs, but on the other hand, monsters and PCs don’t necessarily use the same rules. So, does anything explicitly state that monsters with the Spellcasting trait get their spell slots back on a long rest?

How do the physical traits granted by the draconic sorcerer bloodline interact with a changeling’s shapechanger trait?

Sorcerers with the draconic bloodline develop a thin sheen of dragon-like scales and can eventually manifest wings. How does this interact with the changeling’s ability to alter their shape?

For instance:

  • Can they maintain the armor bonus of draconic resilience when they are mimicking a race without scales?
  • Can they manifest wings and then change them to match an Aarakocra or Winged Tiefling while still maintaining their original flight speed?

If a spellcaster’s racial trait grants a spell that requires material components, can they use their class’ focus to cast that spell?

Based on the answer to this question about non-spellcasters, spells granted by racial traits don’t waive the need for material components. However, can spellcasters use their class’ allowed focuses with such spells, or must they still acquire the specific materials (or a component pouch) to cast them?

If the spell is also on their class’ spell list, does that change anything?

How do I calculate d20 success probability using the Halfling ‘lucky’ trait with (dis)advantage?

Here is a comprehensive DPR calculator, and here is the mathematics behind it. I’m trying to follow along with the equations.

At the bottom of the second page are formulas for success probability $ L$ of a Halfling (who has luck) in normal circumstances and with advantage and disadvantage: $ $ L = P + \frac{1}{20}P,$ $ $ $ L_{adv} = P_{adv} + \left(\frac{2}{20}(1 – P) – \frac{1}{400}\right)P,$ $ $ $ L_{dis} = P_{dis} + \frac{2}{20}P^2,$ $ where:

  • $ P$ is the probability of succeeding on any single roll,
  • $ P_{adv} = 1 – (1 – P)^2$ is the probability of succeeding with advantage (not failing both rolls), and
  • $ P_{dis} = P^2$ is the probability of succeeding with disadvantage (succeeding both rolls).

The $ P$ s are quite easy to derive, and $ L$ is just passing outright OR [rolling a 1 AND THEN passing]: $ $ P + \left(\frac{1}{20}*P\right).$ $ But I’m struggling with deriving $ L_{adv}$ and $ L_{dis}$ . Please can someone show a derivation?

How does **Enhanced Trait : Affect Others Only** function as a device?

This is a continuation of this question for Mutants and Masterminds 3e. So, the character I proposed could spawn a minimum of 6 constructs with 30pp worth of powers/skills by using Invention at Quickness 20, but this is from a PL20 character, so making a flood of these critters wouldn’t be that effective unless we were being attacked by a huge, person-man army. That being said, it doesn’t prevent me from making other inventions using the same method. My initial solution is to create beacons to buff my constructs, a power worth at least 2pp per rank (Permanent Enhanced Trait, Affects Others Only, Perception, Limited(my constructs)). Now, I could use this to buff a core stat or a ranged attack by 10 ranks (thus bringing that up to PL12 by proxy), but that involves planting several beacons in series to cover all my bases and still leaves them much weaker than most things that’d be thrown our way. My other option is to drop the Perception range modifier, which would give me the leeway to either buff a core stat/ranged attack to the PL cap and have 12 points to spare or buff 2 things to a more agreeable 15 ranks.

The latter would be the preferred solution, but I’m unclear on how the device itself would function. To that end, I have 3 questions.

  • Would this device have to be a worn piece of gear or a stationary object that my constructs need to interface with?
  • If these need to be worn/carried, is there a limit to how many my constructs can carry?
  • If these need to be interfaced with, what sort of action do the constructs need to take?

Which works best to describe character, item or dungeon properties: Affix or Trait?

I am working on an RPG portion of my game called “The Underground King“.

My item generator uses the same properties that also apply to characters, vehicles and racing levels (dungeons for short).

I am torn between using the term “Affix” and the term “Trait” to describe the procedurally generated properties, mainly because English is not my first language, and there may be a clear difference in usage between the two.

Examples of traits: Hearty: For items, it gives 5 more HP, for characters they have 5 more HP, for vehicles they have 5 more durability, for dungeons, enemies have 5 HP each. Indomitable: For items, characters and vehicles, it gives the player the ability to ressurect at 100% hp, once dead. For the dungeon, dead enemies remain invulnerable for a few seconds after being dead.

I am open to either opinions or arguments for any of them. Thanks!

Between the half-orc’s Savage Attacks trait and the Elven Accuracy racial feat, which is better?

The description of the half-orc’s Savage Attacks trait says:

When you score a critical hit with a melee weapon attack, you can roll one of the weapon’s damage dice one additional time and add it to the extra damage of the critical hit.

The Elven Accuracy racial feat for elves and half-elves grants the following benefits (XGtE, p. 74):

  • Increase your Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma score by 1, to a maximum of 20.

  • Whenever you have advantage on an attack roll using Dexterity, Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma, you can reroll one of the dice once.

Generally or mathematically speaking, which one of these is better?

If you need a context, let’s say Fighter/Champion level 3 (critical on 19-20) and Fighter/Champion level 15 (critical on 18-20). Or let’s say Fighter/Champion 15 and Warlock 5 with Hex on the target (extra 1d6 per hit, which would be rolled twice on a critical hit). Or any other similar effect which adds dice rolls on hit which would then be rolled twice on a critical. Let’s say we’re using a 2-handed weapon that does 1d12 damage.

Let’s also throw in the Great Weapon Fighting fighting style (Fighter 2):

When you roll a 1 or 2 on a damage die for an attack you make with a melee weapon that you are wielding with two hands, you can reroll the die and must use the new roll, even if the new roll is a 1 or a 2. The weapon must have the two-handed or versatile property for you to gain this benefit.

From my (basic) understanding, the Elven Accuracy feat would provide a lot more critical hits.

GWF and Savage Attack push the average damage up, but I’m not quite sure how to calculate the two scenarios.

I would really enjoy an analysis similar to what was provided here: Does the Resilient (Con) feat or the War Caster feat most improve the chances of maintaining concentration?

How does the Great Weapon Fighting fighting style interact with critical hits and the half-orc’s Savage Attacks trait?

We know that the Great Weapon Fighting fighting style allows the rerolling of all 1 and 2s that come from a weapon taking the new roll.

If a player using a Greatsword gets a critical hit and rolls 4d6 damage, does the GWF count for all 4d6, or just the underlying 2d6?

Does a Half-Orc get to apply GWF to their Savage Attacks, allowing a potential 5d6 under the GWF rule to be rerolled on 1 and 2’s?

Do spells with the Attack trait have a range increment?

From Core Rulebook, p. 279:

Range: Ranged and thrown weapons have a range increment. Attacks with these weapons work normally up to that distance. Attack rolls beyond a weapon’s range increment take a –2 penalty for each additional multiple of that increment between you and the target. Attacks beyond the sixth range increment are impossible.

For example, a shortbow takes no penalty against a target up to 60 feet away, a –2 penalty against a target beyond 60 feet but up to 120 feet away, and a –4 penalty against a target beyond 120 feet but up to 180 feet away, and so on, up to 360 feet.

What I am trying to figure out is if this also applies to spells which have the Attack trait and thus perform a ranged attack when cast against a target.

On one hand, Core Rulebook states on p. 304:

Targets: Some spells allow you to directly target a creature, an object, or something that fits a more specific category. The target must be within the spell’s range, and you must be able to see it (or otherwise perceive it with a precise sense) to target it normally.

On the other hand, it also states for Spell Attacks on p. 305:

Spell Attacks: Some spells require you to succeed at a spell attack roll to affect the target. This is usually because they require you to precisely aim a ray or otherwise make an accurate attack. A spell attack roll is compared to the target’s AC. Spell attack rolls benefit from any bonuses or penalties to attack rolls, including your multiple attack penalty, but not any special benefits or penalties that apply only to weapon or unarmed attacks.

So, if I cast for example Divine Lance (p. 331) which has the Attack Trait, a range of 30 feet and targets 1 creature, is the spell able to hit a target further than 30 feet from me but with the appropriate range increment penalty taken into account? Or is it completely ineffective for any target out of nominal range (30 feet for the aforementioned spell)?

What exactly does the mindless trait entail

So I was skimming through posts about Touhou and found a 5e homebrew race called the satori (located here) and that made me wonder how accurate that is for pathfinder. So I looked into it a bit and found this post though was more about someone not liking a gm ruling rather than someone wanting to know about how mindless creatures actually work and respond causing replies like “your gm is wrong”. It did, however, give examples of how mindless is described in the creature types and subtypes section of the rules in the spoiler section as well as the paragraph that followed.

So what I want to know is what exactly is a mindless creature and how does it respond to its environment.