Do encumbered players suffer any penalties when exploring and/or traveling?

The current 5e campaign I’m running uses the encumbrance variance rules and demands a lot of travel and resource management on the part of the players.

This brought up questions about penalties when traveling while encumbered/heavily encumbered (especially from players with lower strength scores)…

It is stated in the PHB that being encumbered reduces a player’s movement in combat while being heavily encumbered drops movement further, and negatively affects attack rolls, ability checks, as well as certain saving rolls. That is clear enough! The DMG adds:

The difference between walking speeds can be significant during combat, but during an overland journey, the difference vanishes as travelers pause to catch their breath, the faster ones wait for the slower ones, and one traveler’s quickness is matched by another traveler’s endurance.

So, it appears, according to RAW, that even a heavily encumbered party’s travel speed is not affected when exploring or traveling, nor do they suffer any other penalties associated with travel (e.g. reduced distance covered/marching time, increased risk of exhaustion, etc.). We aren’t missing anything obvious?

What is the difference between nearest and cheapest insertion algorithms for a Traveling salesman problem?

I know that in the cheapest insertion algorithm we include the node which is not in the “base group” that has smaller cost given all possible combinations, and for the nearest we include the node with smaller cost. So, do they differ only in how combinations are made?

For example, I have the following weighted matrix graph:

     2  13  14  17  20 2  0.0 Inf Inf 1.9 1.7 13 Inf 0.0 7.3 7.4 7.2 14 Inf 7.3 0.0 7.7 7.8 17 1.9 7.4 7.7 0.0 9.2 20 1.7 7.2 7.8 9.2 0.0 

If I start from node 2 from each method:


1) 2-20-2

2.1) 2-17-20-2 = 12,8

2.2) 2-17-20-2 = 12,8 *Choosen

3.1) 2-13-20-17-2 = Inf

3.2) 2-20-13-17-2 = 18,2 *Choosen

3.3) 2-20-17-13-2 = Inf

4.1) 2-14-20-13-17-2 = Inf

4.2) 2-20-14-13-17-2 = 26,1

4.3) 2-20-13-14-17-2 = 25,8 *Choosen one

4.4) 2-20-13-17-14-2 = Inf


1) 2-20-2 2.1.a) 2-13-20-2 = Inf

2.1.b) 2-20-13-2 = Inf

2.2.a) 2-14-20-2 = Inf

2.2.b) 2-20-14-2 = Inf

2.3.a) 2-17-20-2 = 12,8

2.3.b) 2-20-17-2 = 12,8

So, with the cheapest approach, do I explicitly make all combinations?

For what applications of the traveling salesman problem, does visiting each city at most once truely matter?

Traditionally, the traveling salesman problem has you visit a city at least once and at most once.

However, if you were an actual traveling salesman, you would want the least cost route to visit each city at least once, and you wouldn’t be bothered visiting a city 2, 3, or more times. For given city, you might stop and hawk your wares only once, and on subsequent visits, only drive through the city without stopping.

Consider an undirected graph having a city incident to exactly two edges. The cost on one of these edges is only 10 units, while the cost on the other is 99,999,999,999. If you insist on visiting each city at most once, then you are forced to incur the cost of the high cost edge. However, if you allow yourself to visit cities multiple times, then you simply leave the way you came in (on the low cost edge). The low cost edge leads you back to a city you’ve passed through before.

The traveling salesman problem is highly contrived for an actual traveling salesman. I want to give students an application for which there’s a real incentive to visit each city at most once. For what applications is visiting each city a critical aspect of the problem?

Can you ritual cast multiple Phantom Steeds and continue re-summoning them while traveling?

Can you ritual cast the Phantom Steed spell multiple times and in practice just re-summon them while you are traveling? So for example, could a Wizard ritual summon a horse, three times in a row. And then just focus on re-summoning them while he’s riding one of them. The spell lasts 1 hour, ritual casting it 3 times would take 33 minutes. So he should have more than enough time to summon new horses for himself and his party before any of the individual horses disappear. Is this correct?

Traveling from UK (London) to USA via Dublin, 6 month passport expiry query

I just have a quick question/confirmation regarding the 6 month expiry rule.

I am travelling from the UK to the USA on 2nd of Sept to 17th Sept 2019.

My passport is set to expire 09 March 2020, so the 6 month range will occur mid-holiday.

As far as I can see on the USA and Ireland websites, the 6 month rule does not apply to UK citizens:

Ireland –

If you’re using a passport to enter Ireland, it should be valid for the proposed duration of your stay; you don’t need any additional period of validity on your passport beyond this.


For certain nationalities, the passport or other travel document must be valid for at least six months beyond the proposed stay in the United States. The six-month requirement does not apply to United Kingdom passports.

I tried contacting my airline to confirm that I should be fine as is, but they just replied with the following:

[Airline] is required to comply with all government passport and visa requirements. It is your responsibility to ensure you are permitted to enter or transit all countries on your itinerary. While we cannot strictly advise you on individual requirements, you can check requirements by visiting the IATA Travel Centre at

I also ran my details through the IATA website and that all turns up green, but I’m just hoping someone can give further confirmation that I should be fine as is?

I’d rather afford paying out the nose for express passport and ticket modifications if possible.


Does anybody have any experience of traveling to the USA, as a British Citizen, to marry a US citizen?

As my question here if you want to quickly read it states: Are these intended activities legal to do in the USA under the VWP?

I’m traveling to the USA next month, as a Brit, to visit my American fiancee and then return to the UK. Does anybody have similar experiences to this and what should I expect? Judging by certain answers in my previous question I am getting nervous I will be detained and refused entry.

I have a good job which I’ve had for two months here in the UK, it’s an reputable organisation which will also be known in the States, I have a good income, I’ve been to the USA multiple times all to see my fiancee. The only difference from this upcoming visit and my previous visits is that she is now my fiancee, and not my girlfriend. My last visit to the USA was May 7 – May 16 2019.

We’re seeing some more sights in the US, planning our wedding location and date, seeing a soccer game, going camping, then she’s going to fly back to the UK with me when I leave to come see my family and I for 3 weeks.

Does anybody have an experience with visiting a fiancee from the States, or even marrying an American then returning back home? What was your experience with CBP like?


Do I need a transit Visa with my Turkish passport traveling from Istanbul to Munich (Germany) and to Nice (France) to finally go to Canada?

I keep searching in this website and calling the French embassy, but I still don’t know if a transit visa is enough for this kind of layover. Or would I need a full Visa for a 1:30 h layover in Nice coming from Munich.

17 year old US Citizen traveling to Canada

I’ll be traveling to Canada while I’m 17 (20 days from being 18) for a business conference and had questions about the page regarding “Minor children travelling to Canada”.

I currently don’t live with my parents making it hard to get a consent form, but I noticed it says “Minors who try to enter Canada without the proper documents, or who are with adults other than their parents or legal guardian(s), will be checked more closely.” implying that you don’t actually need this form.

I’m wondering what risk there is if I travel to Canada alone with only my valid US Passport and no forms at all. Maybe someone with experience might have an idea.

Traveling while waiting for french residence permit

I moved to France last year and Im still waiting for my titre de sejour, I have a valid récépisse but I know this is not a valid document to travel (back) to France. I have ( after asking more than a few times if this was ok ) however already booked and paid for an expensive trip inside of the Schengen area that is to take place very soon. The people at the prefecture have now washed their hands and deny they assured me it was ok to book this ( over 6 months after I first applied for the residence permit ). I have already renewed my recepisse once and the new one is about to expire soon too.

But anyway, Im from a country which gets 90 days visa exemption for tourism. My question is: would it be ok ( and by this I mean legal ) to travel outside Schengen for a few days and then come back so I can get my passport stamped as if I were here simply for tourism? In my understanding with this stamp I would then have no issue flying inside the Schengen area, crossing borders and coming back to France afterwards, right?

People at the prefecture at not really friendly and just say I have to wait and dismiss my questions, so there’s not much use in asking them. So if this is something that is allowed, Id like to have something quotable if possible in case I face one ‘totally random’ document check at the border.