Is there an optional or house rule for effectiveness of specific weapons versus specific armor types?

In many epic fantasy worlds (as well as in the real world) there are protective measures, designed to protect from specific threats. For example, chainmail provides good protection against slashing attacks, but is not so good versus blunt weapons.

I know D&D isn’t a reality simulator, but, for the sake of diversity, I want to use a houserule that generally makes a particular weapon type more effective against a particular armor type.

To avoid reinventing the wheel, is there a well-known houserule (or an official rules variant, maybe) for making particular kinds of weapons more effective against specific types of armor?

Question about data types/variable types:

I have been given this question and I’m not too sure where to go with it any help would be appreciated.

An Ordnance Survey Grid Reference, such as SX624678 and SN5881, contains information about distance of a point to the Easy of an origin (the first 50% of the digits) and to the North of an origin (the second 50% of the digits). The two letters provide further information that specifies a region of the United Kingdom, which can be used ‘as is’ or used as further numerical data (using a conversion process that is not relevant to this question)

Describe the data structures and/or variable types that a software engineer might reasonably use to store Grid References within a program in the following cases. Your answer should give an explanation for the decision, among which you may wish to include performing issues.

i. The data will only be used to display the Grid Reference within a printed list. ii. The data are to be used within the program to perform arithmetic calculations based on position, and also plotted on a map, but the Grid References themselves will not be displayed to the user. iii. The data are to be used within the program to perform arithmetic calculations based on position, and also plotted on a map, where the Grid References will be displayed to the user.

[12 marks]

What’s the significance of different Laser Types in Starfinder

As the title says, What is up with all the different types of lasers, there’s Zenith, Parallax, Corona and others. But I can’t seem to find the significance of these subtypes of laser? I am assuming there are maybe certain armors or something that resist say a zenith laser, but not a corona laser?

using crtl+f doesn’t seem to be picking up any relevant info in my PDF. The index is of equal uselessness.

Any help on determining what all these types mean and what i should be looking for in arming myself with a laser weapon would be highly appreciated.

How does ‘Mirage Arcane’ interact with damage types, speed, and Concentration?

Reading over different questions about ‘Mirage Arcane’, I’ve come to what I believe is a fair understanding of what the spell can do, but I’m left with a few questions. So far, my understanding of the spell is this:

  1. The spell can create formations that can be interacted with as if they are real (See: https://twitter.com/JeremyECrawford/status/709549372875218944)

  2. The spell cannot create deformations that can be interacted with as if they are real (See: Can I get creatures stuck in the ground with Mirage Arcane + Illusory Reality?)

  3. Under the right circumstances, illusions created by ‘Mirage Arcane’ can cause harm (See: https://www.sageadvice.eu/2018/06/03/if-i-used-mirage-arcane-to-transform-a-lake-of-water-into-a-lake-of-lava/)

Now, to quote the spell:

The illusion includes audible, visual, tactile, and olfactory elements, so it can turn clear ground into difficult terrain (or vice versa) or otherwise impede movement through the area.

I am assuming that this means that with regards to speed, ‘Mirage Arcane’ would be able to create normal terrain from difficult terrain and vice versa such that the original terrain is not accounted for with regards to speed, only the illusory terrain. Is there any RAW or RAI that conflicts with that interpretation?

But more to the point: What damage type is damage caused by interacting with the terrain, if damage is caused by some means?

For example: I have before me an empty, flat field. I create an illusory hill that rises up 100 feet and ends in a cliff. I push my friend off the cliff. Given we are actually 100 feet in the air, supported by the illusion, he should take bludgeoning damage from the fall as per normal, correct?

Now lets suppose I have the same field, but this time I create an illusory cliff at the same level as the field that drops 100 feet down. I push my friend again. In reality I just pushed him from one spot in the field to another a few feet over, but for him he “fell”, so does he take damage? If so, should the damage type be bludgeoning or psychic, similar to ‘Phantasmal Force’?

Similarly: If I burn my friend with illusory lava in that same field, does he take damage? If so, fire or psychic? If it does not cause damage, but instead causes phantom, illusory pain as if one were taking damage, would this call for a concentration check against casters concentrating on a spell?

I don’t want to shunt the power of a 7th level spell, but being able to move as if a valley/mountain wasn’t present (within the spells bounds of course) or potentially devastate an entire army with illusory lava/water seems a bit much for illusion magic, even 7th level.

Combining Game Effects and Combining Magical Effects, and how does this relate to damage types?

Combining Game Effects and Combining Magical Effects, and how does this relate to damage types?

Fire Bolts and Fireballs!

I have a question about how to interpret the sections on Combining Game Effects and Combining Magical Effects. I have used fire damage and piercing damage as examples.

Combining Game Effects:

Different game features can affect a target at the same time. But when two or more game features have the same name, only the effects of one of them —the most potent one— apply while the durations of the effects overlap. For example, if a target is ignited by a fire elemental’s Fire Form trait, the ongoing fire damage doesn’t increase if the burning target is subjected to that trait again. Game features include spells, class features, feats, racial traits, monster abilities, and magic items. (DMG p. 252)

Combining Magical Effects:

The effects of different spells add together while the durations of those spells overlap. The effects of the same spell cast multiple times don’t combine, however. Instead, the most potent effect—such as the highest bonus from those castings applies while their durations overlap. For example, if two clerics cast bless on the same target, that character gains the spell’s benefit only once; he or she doesn’t get to roll two bonus dice. (PHB p. 204)

To set the scene: Two Wizards, Pyro and Scorchee, enter a tavern, and they bump ito their arch-enemies, Rangers Legolad and Sir Pokealot – a fight ensues! They roll for initiative. L5 characters.

I’ve had to split it into two scenarios because each presents a nuance as to how to interpret “Combining Game Effects” and “Combining Magical Effects”.

Scenario 1: Both Wizards end up with the same initiative. When it comes to choose their actions: both of them cast Fire Bolt at Legolad and are successful in their ranged spell attacks. Does this mean that Legolad takes: two separate sets of damage of 2d10, or only one, because it is the same spell name?

Scenario 2: Both Wizards end up with the same initiative. One casts Fire Bolt at Sir Pokealot and hits; and the other casts Fireball (to the tavern keeper’s discontent), and he fails his saving throw. Does this mean that Sir Pokealot takes: 2d10 from the Fire Bolt and 8d6 from the Fireball; or only the damage from the spell that caused more damage, because it is the same damage type?

How does progress fail in system $F_{\omega}$ when types $T_1 \to T_2$ and $T_2 \to T_1$ are equivalent?

Pierce’s TAPL book gives in exercise 30.3.17 the setting where $ T_1 \to T_2 \equiv T_2 \to T_1$ (the function type are assumed to be equivalent). In the solutions, he claims that this assumption breaks the progress property.

It is easy to see that preservation fails. How can progress:

$ \vdash t:T \implies t \text{ is a value } \lor \exists t’. t \to t’$

be wrong in this setting?

Predecessor function with recursive types

I am defining the type Nat of natural numbers a recursive sum type:

$ $ Nat = \mu X. Unit \oplus X$ $

Now, I have defined zero as the term:

zero : Nat zero = fold Nat (Inl tmUnit tyNat tyUnit) 

and successor as

succ : Nat -> Nat succ n = fold Nat (tmInr n tyNat tyUnit) 

Please note, that I am not completely sure of these two implementations; they might be wrong – I accept comments on them too.

Now, my question: I want to implement a predecessor function. I have both an isZero function and an if-then-else construct. How could I to this?

different types of machine learning, what is the difference?

I’m currently working as computer science developer. I created few projects that are using neural networks, but I just can’t get sense of terminology in this science.

Can somebody please help me understand the basic difference between machine learning and deep machine learning or artificial neural networks and deep neural network. I have read definition, but still I have trouble understanding difference.

For example, random forest alogrithm is part of machine learning, or deep machine learning?

And neural network with 7 linear layers, 2 convolutional layers, and dropout is a deep or artificial neural network?

Or what exacly term “artificial inteligence” refers to? etc.

Abstract data types (model, principle of no junk)

I have the following abstract data structure

Now i have to find a model that satisfies the principle of no junk and proof that

Could someone advise me to get to a solution and to understand the whole topic?

Thank

1 spec NatSet = Bool and Nat then 2 3 sorts 4 natSet = emptySet | add(natSet, nat) 5 6 ops 7 isEmpty: (natSet) bool, 8 contains: (natSet, nat) bool, 9 union: (natSet, natSet) natSet, 10 intersect: (natSet, natSet) natSet 11 12 vars 13 s,s’: natSet, 14 n,n’: nat 15 16 axioms 17 isEmpty(emptySet) = true 18 isEmpty(add(s, n)) = false 19 20 contains(emptySet, n) = false 21 contains(add(s, n), n) = true 22 n 6= n’ ⇒ contains(add(s, n), n’) = contains(s, n’) 23 24 union(emptySet, s) = s 25 union(add(s, n), s’) = add(union(s,s’), n) 26 27 intersect(emptySet, s’) = emptySet 28 intersect(s, emptySet) = emptySet 29 intersect(add(s, n), add(s’, n)) = add(intersect(s, s’), n) 30 n 6= n’ ⇒ intersect(add(s, n), add(s’, n’)) = 31 union(intersect(s, add(s’, n’)), intersect(add(s, n), s’)) 32 end