different types of machine learning, what is the difference?

I’m currently working as computer science developer. I created few projects that are using neural networks, but I just can’t get sense of terminology in this science.

Can somebody please help me understand the basic difference between machine learning and deep machine learning or artificial neural networks and deep neural network. I have read definition, but still I have trouble understanding difference.

For example, random forest alogrithm is part of machine learning, or deep machine learning?

And neural network with 7 linear layers, 2 convolutional layers, and dropout is a deep or artificial neural network?

Or what exacly term “artificial inteligence” refers to? etc.

Abstract data types (model, principle of no junk)

I have the following abstract data structure

Now i have to find a model that satisfies the principle of no junk and proof that

Could someone advise me to get to a solution and to understand the whole topic?


1 spec NatSet = Bool and Nat then 2 3 sorts 4 natSet = emptySet | add(natSet, nat) 5 6 ops 7 isEmpty: (natSet) bool, 8 contains: (natSet, nat) bool, 9 union: (natSet, natSet) natSet, 10 intersect: (natSet, natSet) natSet 11 12 vars 13 s,s’: natSet, 14 n,n’: nat 15 16 axioms 17 isEmpty(emptySet) = true 18 isEmpty(add(s, n)) = false 19 20 contains(emptySet, n) = false 21 contains(add(s, n), n) = true 22 n 6= n’ ⇒ contains(add(s, n), n’) = contains(s, n’) 23 24 union(emptySet, s) = s 25 union(add(s, n), s’) = add(union(s,s’), n) 26 27 intersect(emptySet, s’) = emptySet 28 intersect(s, emptySet) = emptySet 29 intersect(add(s, n), add(s’, n)) = add(intersect(s, s’), n) 30 n 6= n’ ⇒ intersect(add(s, n), add(s’, n’)) = 31 union(intersect(s, add(s’, n’)), intersect(add(s, n), s’)) 32 end 

What are the types of these functional dependencies?

I was wondering if anyone could help me solve this homework problem I have for my database management class. We were given this table:

Table assigned to me

We were then given the following functional dependencies

CourseID -> CourseLanguage, CourseLevel ClientID -> ClientName CourseID, ClientID -> Attendance, FinalScore 

We had to identify each dependency by the types of full, transitive, or partial.

I have come to the following conclusions and want to know if they are logical:

  • The first dependency is partial because CourseLanguage and CourseLevel are both determined by CourseID, which is part of a composite primary key
  • The second dependency is also partial because ClientName is determined by ClientID, which is part of a composite primary key
  • The third dependency is full because the entire primary key determines the columns attendance and final score.

Thank you for your time and help!

General types of output of a computer

I am trying to understand what are the general types of output of a computer.
I assume the following described general types of output are the only ones in the cosmos, but I might be wrong:

  • Screened Raw Data: Output such as a document available only to be read but not edited (as when opened with a reading-only “viewer” program)
  • Screened Interface: Output such as a document available to be both read and edited (as when opened with a text editor)
  • Spatial Change: Output such as the result of a computerized machine, or alternatively, a computer embedded system (such as a robot and maybe also quantum computer or some physical yet non material computer of some sort)

A similar try is defining what are the only possible ways to input data into computer, such as with CLUI, TUI, GUI and possibly other methods.

Is there a consensus among computer scientists about what are the general types of output of a computer?

Arrow types – when to use which

Disclaimer: I know this is a “just look into the rule-book” type of question – but I have no rule book at hand and want to come in prepared for my next session. So maybe someone has the rulebook at hand or knows the answer right away.

My newish character has a compound bow for his main weapon. I am aware that there are at least three arrow types in rolemaster, but I neither remember all types, nor when to use which best (referring to armor classes & number of enemies).

Throttling specific file types on IIS 10

Wondering if any of you have a file download throttling solution for IIS 10 servers. I see some references to leveraging Media Services for earlier versions of IIS. But I’m not seeing a well-supported option for IIS 10. We’re trying to throttle downloading via HTTP for MP3 and PDF files, while not throttling HTML/JPG/Etc. I see the IIS option to throttle all activity to a certain max bandwidth, but that cuts off serving up pages if a bunch of file downloads are started at the same time.

Thanks for any leads you can send our way.

Are type variables really only used in mathematical conversation about types?

Are type variables really only used in mathematical conversation about types? i.e. are type variables (meta-variables that only contain the type classification label) only exist in proofs for types but not in real programming languages? At least is this true for monomorphic types? i.e. I can’t actually define:

$ $ \texttt{ let id x = x }: \tau$ $

unless the type $ \tau$ has already been defined or is built in? i.e. type variables only exist for symbolic manipulation of type proofs for humans (at least for monomorphism).

Extra thoughts:

I am trying to understand how one defines the identity function $ \texttt{let id x = x}$ in monomorphic type systems. I believe the motivation for polymorphism is to allow to apply the same syntactic definition of a function to different data types that are NOT the same, like: $ \texttt{id 2}$ and $ \texttt{id true}$ without the type checker freaking out at us when it tries to run those (if the language is dynamically typed…I guess in static the compiler would complain at the first instance of the identity function being applied to the wrong type when we try to compile it to usable code).

So to my understanding, if we define types as a set of possible data values, so say $ \texttt{int}$ defines the set of all integers. Then the set $ Set_{int \to int}$ is the set of all functions that can map integers to integers. But if we have $ Set_{\forall \alpha . \alpha \to \alpha}$ and we consider the identity function corresponding to both sets so $ id_{\forall \alpha . \alpha \to \alpha} \in Set_{\forall \alpha . \alpha \to \alpha}$ and $ id_{int} \in Set_{int \to int}$ then when both identity functions are applied to integers they will behave exactly the same BUT they are not the same function (because they are not the same data value, the data value for one is identity on only integers while the other is give me any type and I will act like its corresponding identity. So in particular $ Set_{\alpha \to \alpha} = Set_{int \to int} \cup \dots \cup Set_{string \to string}$ (i.e. the identity $ id_{\alpha \to \alpha}$ is just the identity function for a specific type but not actually a function that is able to process ANY type, its one and in this case this is why the for all is important).

So my question is, is $ id_{\forall \alpha . \alpha \to \alpha} \in Set_{\alpha \to \alpha}$ ? I guess I am trying to clarify the dots … What does it cover? Perhaps it depends on the context of how the types are formally defined? If the $ \alpha$ stands for type variables, but type variables are only allowed to be monomorphic by definition (i.e. say the type constructor for the meta-langauge is recursive but only in the monomorphism where we can’t introduce the forall quantifier) then the $ id_{\forall \alpha . \alpha \to \alpha} \not\in Set_{\alpha \to \alpha}$ . But if the recursive definition for polymorphic types is recursive at the polymorphic step then perhaps $ id_{\forall \alpha . \alpha \to \alpha} \in Set_{\alpha \to \alpha}$ is true? Actually I don’t think so…

Context: CS 421


  • What does $ \forall \alpha_1, \dots , \alpha_n . \tau $ mean formally as a type?

  • What is the difference between $ \alpha \to \alpha $ vs $ \forall \alpha. \alpha \to \alpha$ ?