If someone is under the effect of microcosm, does putting the physical body in quintessence affect their dream world?

Does putting someone’s physical body in quintessence, thus removing them from the time stream, also remove them from the dream demiplane their mind was sent to by Microcosm?

The point of this is to see if we can separate the mind and body and use Dream Travel to go to the dream created by Microcosm, with the body of the dreamer safely stored in Quintessence.

All of this assumes that Microcosm does create a dream demiplane, which by RAW may be dubious. But if it does, cheap pocket plane with better time traits we could otherwise get. Downside: dealing with monsters of the dream world might suck. Upside, pretty hard to get there if you’re not a creature related to dreams.

What is the lowest level at which a human could run a marathon in under two hours?

Inspired by What is the lowest level at which a human can beat the 100m world record (or: the presumed human limit) without using magic?, which I read just after finishing the Athens Marathon last November. Earlier in 2019, Kenyan athlete Eliud Kipchoge ran the marathon distance (42.195 km, about 26.2 miles) somewhat an order of magnitude faster than me in an amazing time of just under 2 hours, during the Ineos 1:59 Challenge.

Most D&D optimization attempts are aimed at short periods/distances (focused on combat situations), so for a change I’d like my (human) athlete to perform a feat of endurance: break the marathon distance record. What is the minimum level at which this can be achieved? A level 12 Monk has a base speed of 30ft + 40ft (assuming they’re unarmed) = 70ft, which, extrapolating the ‘Movement and Distance’ table on page 162 of my 3.5e Player’s Handbook translates to a Hustle speed of 14 miles an hour. A second hour of hustling incurs 1 point of nonlethal damage, and makes the character fatigued (I know how that feels) but doesn’t influence movement speed, so this monk should cross the finish line after 1:52 and a bit.

Since, unlike Usain Bolt, Eliud Kipchoge got some help from others (pacemakers, nutrition provided by a horseback bike rider, pacing lasers) during this record attempt, our human athlete character is allowed to invoke the help of their fellow party members, but magic is still out of the question; otherwise, you could just hire a bunch of Sorcerers, located at specific intervals on the track, each casting Expeditious Retreats for a continuous 30ft/round bonus.

Assume D&D 3.5e rules, and any officially rule book is allowed (I only have the Core Rulebooks, which for instance (AFAICT) don’t contain a feat which increases movement). When in doubt, the contest rules in the linked question apply (except for the assistance of up to five party members, which are the same level as the athlete).

How does Widevine, FairPlay, and other DRM’s work under the hood?

I am trying to understand how DRM works under the hood. There doesn’t seem to be much information about it on the web so I figured I would ask here.

After some attempted research, I found it extremely difficult to find any information regarding how Widevine or FairPlay DRM actually works. There is some general information about Content Decryption Module (CDMs) and such but how it actually works seems to be a mystery. I am wondering if this is intentional because much of DRM is maybe security through obscurity.

My basic/abstract understanding of DRM is that a file is encrypted usually using AES. When the file is attempted to be accesses the DRM solution, using some proprietary (this is the part I am looking to understand better), transfers the key to the CDM for it to be decrypted and then provided back to the application, often a browser, for playback. Is this correct?

If the above is the case, I assume that an attacker could simply edit the binary for the CDM to access the key or the file after is decrypted.

What’s the flying speed of someone under the Fly spell with two levels of exhaustion?

Recently, our party barbarian gained two levels of Exhaustion. As per the rules of that condition (PHB, p. 291), the effect of level 2 Exhaustion is:

Speed halved

The fly spell (PHB, p. 243) has the following effect:

You touch a willing creature. The target gains a flying speed of 60 feet for the duration.

We wondered what the barbarian’s speed would have been if fly was cast on him. Which of the above rules would be considered more specific? Would the barbarian be able to fly for 60 feet, or only 30 feet, per turn?

What happens when Catapult is cast on something that is under the effects of Levitate?

According to Catapult’s description, the spell is limited by the weight of the object with some variance based on the level in which the spell was cast. With the spell Levitate, could you interpret this to mean that an object under the effects of Levitate weighs effective 0 and then be subjected to the effects of Catapult?

Prove that the language of CFGs that is closed under reversal is undecidable


The wording of the title may be a bit vague, but I’m not asking if CFLs are closed under reversal. Please see below.

Problem Description

Given a word $ w$ , define $ w^{r}$ to be its reversal.

Let $ L=\{ G \vert G \text{ is a } CFG \text{ and for every } w \in L(G), w^{r} \in L(G) \}$

Prove that $ L$ is undecidable.

My Attempt

I am aware that I should reduce a known-to-be-undecidable language to L, but by looking at the four undecidable languages here (Equivalence, Disjointness, Containment, Universality), I still failed to determine which language I can use. Please guide me a direction, thank you.

Showing that the class of regular languages are closed under merging / modified shuffle

Consider $ ab$ and $ cd$ which are two words. We merge these two into 6 possibilities: $ abcd, acbd, acdb, cabd, cadb, cdab$

So in general, a merge of words/sequences $ x, y ∈ Σ∗$ , is a word of length $ |x| + |y|$ with both $ x$ and $ y$ as disjoint subsequences in it.

For two languages $ L1$ and $ L2$ their merge is defined as the set of all possible merges of two words $ x ∈ L1, y ∈ L2$ .

So basically, a merge is a modified shuffle and should be of length that of the sum of the length of two languages, and should also be in order (see $ ab$ and $ cd$ example, as $ b$ could not come before $ a$ ).

I was thinking of just connecting the states of all $ L1$ and $ L2$ but this seems wrong as if you connect them all like a fully connected graph, one can jump and go back which is not acceptable.

What’s a basic idea on the construction I could do to prove this?

Under what circumstances does a phantom steed take a minute to disappear

Phantom Steed
3rd level illusion
Casting Time: 1 minute
Range: 30 feet
Components: V S
Duration: 1 hour
Classes: Wizard
A Large quasi-real, horselike creature appears on the ground in an unoccupied space of your choice within range. You decide the creature’s appearance, but it is equipped with a saddle, bit, and bridle. Any of the equipment created by the spell vanishes in a puff of smoke if it is carried more than 10 feet away from the steed. For the duration, you or a creature you choose can ride the steed. The creature uses the statistics for a riding horse, except it has a speed of 100 feet and can travel 10 miles in an hour, or 13 miles at a fast pace. When the spell ends, the steed gradually fades, giving the rider 1 minute to dismount. The spell ends if you use an action to dismiss it or if the steed takes any damage.

Looking at the wording of this spell, it appears that because “when the spell ends, the steed gradually fades” and “the spell ends if you use an action to dismiss it or if the steed takes any damage,” is it correct to interpret this as meaning that even if a steed is attacked in combat, it is still a fully-functional mount for the next minute?

If so, to what extent does this apply? Would a steed targeted by Dispel Magic or one inside an Antimagic Field also take a minute to fade away as the spell ends? Is there any circumstance in which it would immediately disappear?

If my necromancer dies, do my animated dead stay under my control?

From what I understand the undead created via animated dead are under my PC’s control indefinitely. So if I had commanded them to kill enemies of mine (insect things that were fighting our group so I commanded them to attack the bugs) would they follow that command after I die, or become uncontrolled and attack my party members too?

I had assumed that they became uncontrolled, and they attacked the party (which teleported away), but after looking while they were figuring out what to do next, I had re-read animated dead to figure out if that was correct.

The other thing that I was curious is do they stay under my control when brought back to life too?

If they do go uncontrolled after death, that would mean any necromancer PC would be a group wipe if they die.

I’ve been looking for an answer to this on the internet and the D&D books.