What are the rules for upgrading existing magic item?

This question comes from the comments on my previous question.

In short, if I have for example a Belt of Incredible Dexterity +2 (4,000 gp), and I want a Belt of Incredible Dexterity +4 (16,000 gp), can I simply go to a wizard and pay the difference and wait for the necessary days to have the item upgraded?

In this case, since the cost goes from 4k gp to 16k gp, I’d have to pay the wizard 12k gp and wait 12 days, while s/he would have to spend 6k gp to perform the task and keep the other 6k gp as profit.

However, the only example I found in the rules, is of a wizard upgrading his/her own item:

Example: Patrick’s wizard decides to use his downtime to increase the armor bonus on his bracers of armor +1 to +3. The price difference between the two types of bracers is 8,000 gp, so Patrick’s wizard must spend 8 days and 4,000 gp (half the 8,000 gp price difference) upgrading his bracers’ magic. If he has fewer than 8 days before the next adventure, he’ll need to finish his crafting while traveling or use accelerated crafting in town to speed up the process.

Metasploit: Issue with upgrading a low privilege shell (sessions -u)

Setup info: I don’t believe this is the issue as I regularly update my system. I’ll add one piece of information as an example. If you would really like to the rest then I can add more in later

metasploit v5.0.89-dev

Payload: I used a custom python script to create a reverse shell from the victim’s computer to the attacker. No problem with the low priv shell in netcat or metasploit. If anyone wants to take a look at the script I can upload it to github and share the link(thought its nothing special, I’d prefer to send the link privately to keep the script as less spread as possible).

Exact Steps I took:

msf5 > use multi/handler msf5 exploit(multi/handler) > set payload windows/x64/shell_reverse_tcp payload => windows/x64/shell_reverse_tcp msf5 exploit(multi/handler) > set LPORT 549  LPORT => 443 msf5 exploit(multi/handler) > set LHOST LHOST => msf5 exploit(multi/handler) > run  [*] Started reverse TCP handler on  [*] Command shell session 1 opened ( -> at 2020-05-30 22:31:25 -0400   Login: password You have a shell have fun #> background  Background session 1? [y/N]  y msf5 exploit(multi/handler) > sessions -u 1 [*] Executing 'post/multi/manage/shell_to_meterpreter' on session(s): [1]  

The Issue:

[*] Upgrading session ID: 1 [*] Starting exploit/multi/handler [*] Started reverse TCP handler on  [-] Post failed: NoMethodError undefined method `reverse!' for nil:NilClass [-] Call stack: [-]   /usr/share/metasploit-framework/lib/msf/core/session/provider/single_command_shell.rb:136:in `shell_command_token_win32' [-]   /usr/share/metasploit-framework/lib/msf/core/session/provider/single_command_shell.rb:84:in `shell_command_token' [-]   /usr/share/metasploit-framework/lib/msf/core/post/common.rb:147:in `cmd_exec' [-]   /usr/share/metasploit-framework/lib/msf/core/post/windows/powershell.rb:32:in `have_powershell?' [-]   /usr/share/metasploit-framework/modules/post/multi/manage/shell_to_meterpreter.rb:161:in `run'  

Note: I have taken a look at some of the files, but they seem to be coded in ruby(something I am not familiar with) and the error seems to be related to multiple files, so I have no clue how to really debug this. There also seems to be similar issues posted on github if it helps.

Upgrading from D&D Adventure System to a full D&D Campaign

Me and my gaming group recently decided to try Role-playing as it’s something that isn’t offered by any of the local gaming groups / stores. Since the popular hobby around here is miniature war-gaming, our group has been playing smaller and smaller games of Warhammer 40,000, trying to get as close to roleplaying elements as possible, until we decided to just bite the bullet and try something character based. We decided to try out Dungeons & Dragons, so picked up the latest game, Temple of Elemental Evil. We figured since it uses miniatures, it should be less of a shock to local players used to war-gaming.

Problem is, when we started playing we realised that Level 2 is as high as you can go, there’s no equipment and Experience isn’t even used for the one level-up that you do get (It’s bought with 1,000 gold). There’s no real character progression, stat customisation or roleplaying elements. There are Character Sheets in the box, but they’re not actually used at all by the game (they’re for D&D: Encounters, whatever that is). We have a 5th Edition Starter Set, but that’s all Pen & Paper, which none of the local groups are willing to play. The whole thing has just left the entire group completely confused as to how to get started and we can’t find any resources able to help us out.

So my question is, is there any way that people picking up a D&D Adventure System Board Game can upgrade to a full Dungeons & Dragons game? Assuming that there is no “Advanced D&D Adventure Systems Rules” that keeps the same game elements, but introduces character development:

  • Is there any way of using the boards and/or miniatures from Temple of Elemental Evil to play a real Dungeons & Dragons Campaign?
  • If so, how does a group get started with this?
  • Is there anything that a group moving from D&D Adventure Systems need to be aware of before starting Dungeons & Dragons?
  • Are there any tips you guys can give as to how make a smooth transition from D&D Adventure Systems to D&D 5th Edition (or what ever D&D System is most suitable)

Thank you all for your time, literally any information or links to resources on this would be greatly appreciated.

Upgrading Software Version: risk an unknown vs known threat

Is there any evidence or research into the likelihood, as well as damage, via threats in previous versions compared to following iterations of software?

For example, with every software version is the likelihood of new security vulnerabilities. More importantly, those vulnerabilities will be unknown. Whereas by staying on the previous version, even if you’re now vulnerable to a possibly existing risk, it may be a threat that is documented. Of course, that may not always be the case but if it is an unknown threat in version 1, than it will be an unknown threat in version 1+. If that threat is mitigated in version 1+, than we’re back to the point of this question:

**unknown and known threats in

  1. Version 1: unknown and known threats, versus
  2. Version 1+:unknown and possible introduction of alternative threats

This is not a duplicate of other questions with similar titles because Im looking for facts, whereas a lot of other posts include much conjecture.


Trying to get a handle on upgrade implications. When I try and install the new MSOLEDBSQL driver, Windows says “A lower version of this product has been detected on your system. Would you like to upgrade…”. I am presuming that refers to the existing SQLOLEDB driver, and that updating will break my ability to use all of the applications that use PROVIDER=SQLOLEDB.1? I’d like to use the new driver for the current project and moving forward, but wasn’t planning to upgrade every application (and every user’s installed driver, etc) just yet.

1) Is the new driver backward compatible without updating all the connection strings? 2) Can I roll back the old driver anytime? (I didn’t see a download for it anywhere since it’s deprecated.)

Should I regenerate SSL cerfecicates after upgrading Openssl

As you may already know old Openssl versions were vulnerable(OpenSSL 1.0.1 through 1.0.1f (inclusive)) by the HeartBleed vulnerability. currenly our server is running Tomcat7 which is built in a vulnerable Openssl, so we upgraded into Tomcat8 but we didn’t regenerated the SSL certeficates.

So my question is I wonder if we should regenerate the SSL certeficates with the new installed version Openssl, to avoid the Heartbleed vulnerability and may be performance issues?

Thanks for your help!

Problem Upgrading System 76 Gazelle From Ubuntu 18 to 19

I have a two-and-a-half year old Gazelle laptop from System 76. It shipped with Ubuntu 18 installed. There’s no CD drive, internal or external.

I (foolishly) decided to upgrade from 18 to 19 last night.

It downloaded, installed, and cleaned up without incident. I rebooted and left it running when I went to bed.

It’s still running this morning.

I see the following message:

A start job is running for /dev/mapper/cryptswap1 [11h 39 s/no limit]

I also saw a message about crypt size needing to be set.

Have I bricked my laptop? What next steps could I take to restore it?

Dropbox upgrading with huge files

I am using Dropbox on ubuntu (16.04) and noticed that the Dropbox folder contains a folder .dropbox.cache which in turn contains a folder temp_dirs containing 155(!) folders named 3ac3119f-3990-13c1-d09f-3b5d2d124a92 and the like, 75 of which contain files all named dropbox-upgrade-81.4.195.tar.gz and each is 98.1 MB big.

The total size of these files is thus about 7.5 GB.

The Dropbox menu says Upgrading Dropbox... and I understand that these files might be related to the upgrade, but the hard drive does not have enough disk space to fill all 155 folders with 100 MB files and I find it strange that 7.5 GB worth of upgrade files would be needed to upgrade a 339 KB package…

Does anyone have an idea what is going on here?

Ubuntu 18.04: No USB, WLAN, HDMI after upgrading kernel

My situation:

I upgraded the firmware of my Lenovo T480 (via Ubuntu’s “application store”) and everything went fine except that I was running 4.18 kernel before and now it did not boot anymore due to some signature problem (Secure Boot is enabled). No problem, I just selected 4.15 from boot menu and it still worked (why?).

So, I installed the newest 5.0.0-27. However, after reboot I noticed that USB didn’t work, WLAN didn’t and even the external display didn’t work anymore. Then I installed 4.17. Same problem. It seems that only the default 4.15 now works.

Any ideas what has happened?

There are no errors when installing the other kernels. It’s just after reboot I’m lacking USB, WLAN and HDMI. Otherwise the kernels seem to work.