Uses of irreducible control flow

What are some applications where irreducible control flow is required*?

I’m particularly interested in programming language features that will be tricky to efficiently compile if the compile target does not permit irreducible control flow. For example, a programming language offering GOTO will generate irreducible control flow for some programs. What other language constructs are like this? For example, is irreducible control flow required to implement resumable exceptions?

I’m also interested in application-level uses of irreducible control flow.

(*: irreducible control flow graphs (CFGs) can be converted to reducible CFGs at some cost, and also some compiler optimizations can convert reducible CFGs to irreducible CFGs, so what I mean is that the original, unoptimized CFG produced by the source code is irreducible. Less formally, I mean that the "programmer’s intent" naturally includes irreducible control flow)

How does Tor preserve anonymity if it uses normal Internet Routing?

I’m studying Tor and Onion Routing and I don’t understand how it preserves anonymity if the Internet routing is still done using public ip addresses.

Let’s suppose we have the following Tor circuit: Tor Browser -> A -> B -> C -> Server. If someone follows the traffic from relay to relay then the anonymity is broken. Even though it uses 3 layers of encryption the routing is done by public ip addresses which are in clear text in the ip header.

Or when the server responds back it sends the packets to the public ip address of C. Some authority could follow to route from the server to C to B to A to the client and knows that the client is communicating with the server.

Can anyone say if I’m right? Or the entire security of Tor is based on the fact that no one can ever control all 3 relays (or statistically is very improbable)?

Access point uses different BSSID and deauth attack fails

I’m using airgeddon ( to perform a deauthentication attack on my wifi network.

When i put my wireless interface in monitor mode to scan the network from the outside I found the router’s BSSID, which is 10:13:31:F1:48:8D, and then I tried to perform various deauthentication attacks on the network but all of them failed: my computer can successfully send packets but the network is not affected (since my other devices can access internet normally).

Then I ran Zenmap from inside of the network to check if my router’s BSSID was correct and I found that all the devices connected to wifi shown a different BSSID for the router, which is: 10:13:31:F1:48:8C: the difference is in the last digit.

So I tried to perform the attack on the 8C BSSID manually (because it is not detected by airodump-ng) but the attack fails.

This is what I used for the attack:

aireplay-ng -0 0 -a 10:13:31:F1:48:8C wlp3s0mon 

and the result is:

00:03:55 Waiting for beacon frame(BSSID 10:13:31:F1:48:8C) on channel 1 00:04:05 No such BSSID available. 

using the channel 1 for the attack (the same attack works with 8D and channel set on 1).

There’s a way to perform the attack on the correct BSSID?

Uses for Thaumaturgy cantrip 5e

I’m wondering about possible uses for the Thaumaturgy cantrip. Can it be cast on something that has a triggering action for it to go off? An example of what I am meaning is a shop owner casts it on the shop door. When the door opens a bell sounds. I’m thinking in this situation it would need to be recast each time the door opened. Another example would be if you are guarding a treasure and trying to catch a thief. Cast Thaumaturgy on the treasure and when the treasure is touched, and alarm goes off, or something. I haven’t found anything online about it. My DM says no, another DM I know says yes. I’m just looking for other thoughts or opinions.

If I cast Thunderous Smite and Booming Blade, hit, and use Destructive Wrath to maximize damage, how many uses of Channel Divinity are expended?

How many uses of channel divinity should be expended in the following example?


  • A character is using that a weapon that deals 2d6 thunder damage on a hit.
  • They cast Thunderous Smite, using a bonus action.
  • Then cast Booming Blade (at 5th level), making a melee attack as an action.
  • On a hit, the weapon does an additional 1d8 + 2d6 + 2d6 thunder damage.

Thunderous Smite:

The first time you hit with a melee weapon attack during this spell’s duration, your weapon rings with thunder that is audible within 300 feet of you, and the attack deals an extra 2d6 thunder damage to the target.

Booming Blade:

At 5th level, the melee attack deals an extra 1d8 thunder damage to the target, and the damage the target takes for moving increases to 2d8.

Destructive Wrath:

When you roll lightning or thunder damage, you can use your Channel Divinity to deal maximum damage, instead of rolling.

I’m interpreting this as three separate rolls for thunder damage, each requiring a use of Channel Divinity to maximize. Instead of one use of Channel Divinity to maximize all of them at once.

One of the main reasons I’m thinking this, is because another use of Channel Divinity needs to be expended to maximize the secondary damage from Booming Blade, as it’s a completely separate roll.

What happens when a party’s member uses an healing spell on an unconscious PC who has spell resistance?

The Spell Resistance (Ex) ability reads, in part:

The possessor does not have to do anything special to use spell resistance. The creature need not even be aware of the threat for its spell resistance to operate.

My PC fell unconscious in the middle of a fight, when the cleric approached me to use Cure Serious Wounds (Player’s Handbook v.3.5, p. 215) I stated that I had Spell Resistance and I didn’t lower it in order to protect myself while I was on the ground. Our DM ruled that being unconscious implies that my spell resistance isn’t active.

This was certaintly helpful, my PC would be already dead if it wasn’t for that Cure Serious Wounds, but this takes me to the point: was it all legal?

Does an harmless spell has to pass the caster level check in order to affect a creature with Spell Resistance?

Does an unconscious creature has Spell Resistance equal to zero?

When a druid uses Wild Shape to transform into a beast, how many Hit Dice does it have?

Suppose that, for whatever reason, my mid- to high-level druid is in a party that has decided to take a short rest. Instead of spending a use of their Wild Shape to assume a new form with full hit points, my druid decides to spend the short rest in beast form, and spend some of its hit dice on healing.

How many hit dice does the Wilde have upon being transformed into? All? None? Some?