In what ways are high level martial characters better than a high level spellcaster with True Polymorph?

I am a DM running a high-level campaign. My group has recently leveled up to 17, and one of the casters has taken True Polymorph. They have stated their intent to turn into the most powerful kind of dragon allowed by the spell, and use it in combat.

I am worried that the martial classes (Paladin & Rogue) in the party will feel overshadowed by this – after all, with a prep time of 1 action, this caster can turn into an Adult Gold Dragon that almost certainly possesses better mobility, greater or equal damage output, and a health pool twice or more the size of theirs. When that health pool is depleted, they return to “only” a 17th level caster down their 9th level spell slot.

So, I am asking this question to identify the ways in which high level martial characters can excel in their niches in ways that this caster cannot just by turning into a dragon/other high CR creature.

My intent with the answers I get is to implement them: i.e. structure the game such that it is one that supplies a set of challenges that make the martial characters feel useful and powerful, rather than a set that make them feel outclassed by the shapeshifted caster, regret their class choices, and feel like “transitional characters” whose only purpose was to get the casters to level 17.

What ways are there to turn during a charge?

I found Charging Stag Style and Sharp Veer in this /r/Pathfinder_RPG thread on Reddit, and thought “Hmm this sounds like fun.” So I was wondering if there are any other ways to get a charge. No rulebook restrictions; 3PP and 3.5e content are allowed on a case-by-case basis, but the answer is yes or compromise like 90% of the time, so just assume it’s allowed.

How do I turn during a charge other than Charging Stag Style and Sharp Veer?

Both of those options work, but each only allows a single turn of up to 90 degrees during your charge; I want those sick 360-degree charges.

What ways can you give a creature the capability to speak?

I am looking for ways in 5e to grant the capability of speech to a creature ideally permanently. To be specific, I am interested in granting an Artificers Steel Defender and creatures like it the ability to speak. For instance the Steel Defenders stat block states it “understands the languages you speak” implying that it only understands them and does not speak them. I am assuming the possibility of the creature being able to use and attune to items.

Below are some ideas I have had after some initial investigation but none seem sufficient and are limited or dubious rules wise:

Through Magic Items

-“You can speak and understand X” : Ex. Ring of Elemental command, Demon Armor, Efreeti Chain etc.

(Do these apply in our context of a creature with the stat block above? Specific v.s. generic which is which here?)

-Intelligence Boost: Ex. Headband of intellect

(Is boosting intelligence enough to give a creature like the Steel Defender the capability to speak?)

-Telepathy: Ex. Helm of Telepathy

(In general this isn’t truly spoken speech. Oftentimes these are only communication with two people are there items that grant many?)

Through Spells

-Awaken: limitation “Huge or smaller beast or plant”

-Varieties of Polymorph: limitation a transformation itself

-Telepathic spells: limitation is telepathy is not true speech

(in general these have the limitation of possibility of being dispelled and require a spell caster)

Older Editions

Also I know in previous editions 3.5e Pearl of Speech existed, but I am interested in RAW 5e.

If you know of other ways that minimize the limitations involved and require few rare items please share.

What are some ways I can use Project and Global Verified lists?

I really haven’t played with cross-posting on different projects’ verified lists.
Or, used the Global Verified (or other three) lists.
I understand that the global list may have posts on niche-specific targets, like (e.g.) pinball machines, tulip bulbs, and lightbulbs and so would it be weird to try posting a new site that focuses on vegan food using the global list, or one of the other niche projects’ lists?
Are there any negatives to using my own verified lists?
Could it be perceived as spam if I post multiple links to different pages of the same domain on a single target?

What are the ways to store user details in encrypted form in database?

I’m a mobile app developer developing an app that gets input from users like mobile number, email id, and user name. I’m a bit confused about how to select the encryption method like Symmetric or Asymmetric and how to transmit the data from the app to the server.

Since I’m developing an app that will get user information like Mobile number, user name, and password. The App will share the user name and mobile number for other users to discover that person. In that way how should I encrypt the data (Mobile number and username) to store it in the database and how to decrypt it later in the App. I’ll hash the password so no worries in storing the password. The only thing is username and Mobile number.

  • What encryption method should I want to use for this scenario?
  • Which algorithm should I choose Symmetric or Asymmetric algorithm?
  • How to store the encryption key safe in the app?

Proving the recurrence for the “number of ways to make change” problem

I’m studying the famous making change problem. (Post 1 and Post2).

Suppose you were given three coins (1, 2, and 5) and a bill of amount 10 and you want to compute the number of ways you could exchange the bill into coins. In this specific example, there are 4 ways.

The solution involves ordering the coins from the largest to the smallest (5, 2, 1). We then can divide the solution into three subproblems:

(1) the number of ways to change using coins (1) and amount (10 – 1). Call it $ F_1(10-1)$ .

(2) the number of ways to change using coins (1,2) and amount (10 – 2). Call it $ F_2(10-2)$ .

(3) the number of ways to change using coins (1,2,5) and amount (10 – 5). Call it $ F_3(10-5)$ .

The final recurrence would be $ F(10) = F_1(10-1) + F_2(10-2) + F_3(10-5)$ .

I understand the intuition and usually dynamic programming problems have very straight forward proofs (Cut and Paste Arugments). But with this problem, I have no idea where to start? The proof is usually by contradiction and arguing how it’s not possible for $ F(n)$ not to be the optimal value. But I’m not sure here. Any hints on how to even start with this proof? Basically, why is the above recurrence correct?

Ways to exploit a form action value when it s reflected from URI on React-Django

I am working on a security testing project, where I have noticed that the form action of a login page takes whatever is fed to URI as a parameter, the respective part of the login page is as follows:

<form action="/admin/login/?param=Whateveryouputhere" method="post" id="login-form"> 

Actually, you can even omit the “param”, any value after the question mark will still be reflected. the default value for te param is “/next/” btw.

How could an attacker exploit it, especially via XSS? I tried to escape the the quotations but it failed (they are auto-replaced with URL-encodings). Does it mean it is safe?

I have also checked the network tab of the browser, no other relative JS files are loaded except favicon and magnific popup.

Finally, the URL is in the form of site.com/admin/login/?param=value

what’s the correct ways

To perform a Floating Point addition between the following two numbers X and Y in IEEE format, describe the shifts required to perform the operation. The numbers are expressed in hexadecimal so convert them to binary and figure it out.

X = 47E00000

Y= 45400000 pick one from belowe.

No shifting is required before the add or after it.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 1 bit before the add. There is no shifting after the add.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 2 bits before the add. There is no shifting after the add.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 3 bits before the add. There is no shifting after the add.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 4 bits before the add. There is no shifting after the add.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 1 bit before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is shifted to the right by 1 bit.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 2 bits before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is shifted to the right by 1 bit.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 3 bits before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is shifted to the right by 1 bit.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by 4 bits before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is shifted to the right by 1 bit.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by some number of bits not shown above before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is not shifted

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by some number of bits not shown above before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is shifted to the right by 1 bit.

The mantissa of the smaller number is shifted to the right by some number of bits not shown above before the add. After the add, the mantissa of the result is shifted to the right by 2 bits