What is it about damage spells in pathfinder 2e that’s considered ‘weak’?

I’ve read repeatedly that casters in PF2e are mostly relegated to support roles, i.e. buffing allies, rather than dealing damage. I know that this was an effort on Paizo’s part to deal with the linear fighter/quadratic wizard problem.

But I don’t fully understand why damage spells are considered suboptimal. Is it because casters don’t get access to items that improve their to-hit chances on their spells, the way physical-damage-dealers do with e.g. +1/+2 weapons etc.? Or is there something else in the mechanics of casting damaging spells that I’ve missed, which is a problem?

If the former, would a suitable house-rule be to allow weapon potency runes to affect spells cast while ‘wielding’ the weapon? Or add equivalent runes to the effect of, "while wielding this weapon you gain a +X bonus to your spell attack bonus and spell DC"?

Certificate Signed Using Weak Hashing Algorithm impact on a workstation

I did a vulnerability scan on some of our company workstations. These are workstations used by employees (dev, HR, accounting, etc.) to do their job. One of the common result I found is SSL/TLS Certificate Signed Using Weak Hashing Algorithm. Based on the vulnerability description "An attacker can exploit this to generate another certificate with the same digital signature, allowing an attacker to masquerade as the affected service." I’m thinking this is more on a server side.

My question is, what could be the impact of this in an ordinary workstation?
What can an attacker/pentester do to the workstation with this vulnerability?

Is DR/magic weak to all spells, or does it resist spells that cause physical damage?

Ok, so one of the characters in our game is getting DR and is arguing that any damage caused by any spell bypasses the DR.

A creature with this special quality ignores damage from most weapons and natural attacks. Wounds heal immediately, or the weapon bounces off harmlessly (in either case, the opponent knows the attack was ineffective). The creature takes normal damage from energy attacks (even nonmagical ones), spells, spell-like abilities, and supernatural abilities.

The rest of the group is in agreement though that if a spell causes physical damage as opposed to energy or straight magic (like magic missile), then DR should apply. He gave the example of bombardment, saying that because the rocks are created by magic that it counts as a magical damage. The spell doesn’t specifically say a damage type, but obviously the damage is caused by the rocks falling, and not any sort of magic (since it references a non-magical avalanche in the spell). But if you conjure a non-magical animal, that animal’s attacks don’t automatically become magical because it was summoned magically. So, should DR reduce the physical types of damage from spells, or would throwing a rock with a spell count as magic damage as well? *note, the DM already ruled in favor of DR reducing bludgeoning, slashing, etc from spells, so it doesn’t actually effect the rest of us and if he gets his own character killed then so be it. I would actually just like clarification on it because I can’t find anything about it.

Will my necrotic-damage-heavy PC be too weak in Curse of Strahd?

I’m preparing a character for Curse of Strahd, which I have never played before. This character uses a lot of necrotic damage. I don’t mind if this character is not the absolute best choice for this campaign, but on the other hand I don’t want to be too underpowered.

Keeping spoilers to a minimum, is relying on necrotic damage a poor choice for this campaign, or is it just a minor issue?

Specifically, I’m looking to play a Hexblade Warlock with Hex and Arms of Hadar – both necrotic.

Theoretical question with regard to weak password based KDF & high entropy input

I know this question is theoretical however I would like some thoughts from a security perceptive.

Take this thought:

1) I generate a high entropy, cryptographically secure string of bits (256-bits of entropy) 2) I use this entropy as a password fed into a weak PBKFD, like PBKDF1 3) I use the output as a key, should I expect this key provides 256-bit entropy?

Extra question, should I instead use a strong KDF, like PBKDF2, would I then be able to expect no drop in entropy?

PBKDF2 by definition should stretch entropy right? not decrease it.


How can I balance this purposefully weak player character?

I’m DMing a 6 person campaign in 5E and one of my players made a Warlock that is dreadfully sick, but is bolstered by the Undying Warlock patron. How can I balance giving him mostly temporary hitpoints as a more flavorful replacement for normal hitpoints? For instance he might only have 4 HP but have 12 temporary hitpoints that cannot be regenerated via healing or hit dice, but may be replenished after a long rest.

Is there a good, balanced way to implement this? Alternatively, is there a balanced homebrew Warlock patron or other mechanic that does something similar?

Exploiting Weak Permissions on OU in Active Directory?

I created an environment, where I allowed a user named demop with these four permissions


on an OU named VulnerableOU? And, I have Meterpreter access to the user’s PC, so how can I exploit this behavior? Or in other words how this can be exploitable in real scenarios?

By these permissions it looks like we can create an object inside an OU but How? What tool should I use or maybe what PowerShell cmdlet should I use?

Dell Inspiron 3538 (with Qualcomm Atheros QCA9377) has weak Wi-Fi signal on Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS

Yesterday I bought Dell’s Inspiron 3538 with preinstalled Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS.

Everything works pretty much fine (well, there were minor issues as missing a language, a timezone and a region during setup which normally do not miss with vanilla Ubuntu) except Wi-Fi.

For some reason Wi-Fi signal is blatantly weak. First I went to Additional Drivers, there was a wireless device first time I opened Additional Drivers, now it is missing, Ubuntu is not showing it anymore. So I cannot change driver there.

Then I tried installing backports according to this question. I tried few versions, none of them helped. Kernel I am using is 4.15.0-1057-oem.

I really do not know what to do next except installing another kernel (which one?) or just removing preinstalled Ubuntu, download vanilla Ubuntu and install it.

Which is really bad because I bought this Dell explicitly because of its support for Ubuntu and I expected everything to be smooth.

Slaad Chaos Phage: Weak Combat Ability?

Slaad Chaos Phage seems like an odd ability in 5e. They offer no real disadvantages to the party that forces them to expend resources because they require days to take effect: Red Slaad Tadpoles kill whoever they infect in three months while Blue Slaad plague causes maximum HP reduction per day until the target is turned into a Slaad.

In short, as far as I can see, a Slaad infection doesn’t seem to be increase the fighting proficiency of the Slaads in anyway.

Which then brings up the question of how are they supposed to work towards increasing the difficulty of an encounter, since Slaad infections are diseases, and Lesser Restoration is a fairly low level spell.

  1. A party without access to it is unlikely to survive the Slaad in the first place.
  2. A party that is sufficiently high leveled to take down a Slaad would probably have lesser restoration on hand, which they can cast and then long rest to regain all their spells.

The alternative would be keeping infections a secret and the party suddenly wake up one day with a member-turned-Slaad trying to eat their face off. This though seems to be a power move with no counter and extremely unfair for the party, especially for Blue Slaad phage since it means one character is automatically removed from play with no hope of reversal unless someone has Wish handy. At least someone killed by a Tadpole can still be revivified.

Wouldn’t a Slaad infection that causes creatures to turn before the day ends or even mid encounter (A la XCOM Chryssalids) be a more sensible flavor ability? This infection would force players to expend potions/spells slots in the encounter and serves a point to effectively deplete player resources.

Wifi weak and slow

I’ve bought a new laptop. I’ve installed ubuntu 18.04.3 . All went well except wifi signal, it’s weak and slow. I’ve tried several commands on terminal for knowing which wifi adapter it has, but only could see it uses a generic driver. What can I do? Thanks a lot.