Does movement speed add damage or attack power to weapons?

I have a character who has managed to get herself a movement speed of 100′. She is a centaur, and as such specializes in lance based combat and charges. Now in the real world a lance moving faster would have more power behind it. With this centaur moving at 56 MPH and putting her 1473 pounds behind that lance it is striking with a force of 16,726.39 Newtons concentrated down onto the lance tip, which is something rather tiny like a hundred thousandth of an inch. This results in the lance point having 95,510,148 PSI when it strikes a target. This is enough force to pierce up to 8 inches of modern ultra-high carbon steels (assuming no loss of power by friction). In other words that lance is going into and through just about anything that gets in its path.

Now is this knowledge just a fun bit of coolness to know or does D&D reflect physics and give a damage boost for speed of a handheld piercing weapon?

Does Martial Arts Damage Apply to Ranged Attacks with Monk Weapons?

Inspired by an answer to What is the Attack Roll for Deflect Missile?.

The Monk’s Martial Arts feature states that monk weapons are, “…short swords and any simple melee weapons that don’t have the two-handed or heavy property.” (emphasis mine)

For the purposes of my question, I am assuming a 17th level Monk, so that the Martial Arts damage die is 1d10.

My question is that when making a damage roll with a weapon that can be either melee or ranged, like a dagger, which damage die do I roll on a hit for a ranged attack? I am assuming this uses 1d4 because this isn’t a simple melee weapon anymore, but a simple ranged weapon based on the definitions for melee and ranged weapons as defined on page 146 of the PHB:

“A melee weapon is used to attack a target within 5 feet of you, whereas a ranged weapon is used to attack a target at a distance.” (emphasis from the PHB)

Does a monk get martial arts die damage on improvised thrown monk weapons?

The monk’s martial arts ability states:

Your practice of Martial Arts gives you mastery of Combat styles that use unarmed strikes and monk Weapons, which are shortswords and any simple Melee Weapons that don’t have the Two-Handed or heavy property.

I am specifically asking about a shortsword, which is a monk weapon by definition, but this question could apply to any monk weapon that does not have the thrown property.

The monk’s martial arts ability also states:

You gain the following benefits while you are unarmed or wielding only monk Weapons and you aren’t wearing armor or wielding a Shield… • You can roll a d4 in place of the normal damage of your Unarmed Strike or monk weapon.

I would be more comfortable if this said "You can roll the Martial Arts Damage Die shown in the Monk Level / Ability Progression Table" rather than "you can roll a d4", but the other questions I looked at in researching this took that as an assumption and no one challenged them, so…

The rules for using an improvised weapon state…

If a character uses a ranged weapon to make a melee Attack, or throws a melee weapon that does not have the thrown property, it also deals 1d4 damage.

Consider a monk wielding a shortsword and fitting all other requirements for using the martial arts ability.

The shortsword is a melee weapon that does not have the thrown property and has a base damage of d6.

If the monk throws the shortsword it would become an improvised weapon, and thus normally would deal d4 damage. However, in this case does specific beat general and allow the monk to replace the "normal damage" of an improvised weapon with the martial arts die damage, which would be d6 at 5th level?

Or, does the fact that the monk is throwing the shortsword as an improvised weapon disqualify it from being considered a monk weapon, in the same way that one cannot use proficiency for an improvised weapon attack because throwing a melee weapon without the thrown property is no longer a weapon with which one is proficient?

This question: Does Martial Arts Damage Apply to Ranged Attacks with Monk Weapons? affirms that monks get their martial arts die damage on ranged weapons, but the question only considers melee weapons that already possess the ranged property, not improvised weapons.

This question: Does using versatile weapons with 2 hands disqualify them as Monk weapons? affirms that monks get to use their martial arts feature on all monk weapons, even when they use them in ways that would disqualify them from being monk weapons (in this case, using a versatile weapon two-handed).

Somewhat related: Does a Monk's Martial Arts die replace all of a magic weapon's damage, or only the die portion of it?

Is there an official feat that gives expertise for weapons?

I am playing, as well as about to start DM’ing a one shot, in fifth edition D&D and one of my soon-to-be players has talked to me about making either a Fighter (Samurai) or Monk (Kensei) and was wondering if there was any feat that acted like the Bard’s “Expertise” class feature but for weapons rather then skills.

While I have found some homebrewed content for this, I haven’t found anything official, but I just might not be looking in the right places. Is there something like this or at least a homebrew that is relatively balanced?

Edit: Rather then adding the bonus to attack roll I was looking for something that just effects Damage even if it was a just 1/rest effect. I know that “Great Weapon Master” effect is a -5 to hit, +10 to damage. But I was hoping that there was something like, all attacks deal x2 Proficiency Damage for this turn, 1/rest, so the “Arthur the Archer” example wouldn’t effect his to hit chance just the damage he deals IF he hits.

Dnd 5e Throw Multiple Weapons?

Say I can attack 3 times. I want to throw 3 daggers, but I haven’t drawn any yet. Are my Action choices really "draw and throw 1 dagger" OR "draw 2 daggers"? You can’t draw and throw as part of the same attack?

I ask because I read Thrown Weapon Fighting style, which goes out of its way to say that you can draw and throw as a single attack, and I was surprised that you couldn’t already do that.

Can monsters use weapons they took from player characters via Disarm?

Without necessarily getting into whether or not Disarm is a waste of time or not, if a monster Disarms a PC, (page 271, DMG) can that monster use the weapon if it picks it up?

Example…

A Bandit Captain uses its first Melee Weapon Attack to Disarm a PC of their magic sword… then a free action to interact with an object to pick up the magic weapon, and its second Melee Weapon Attack to attack the PC with its new toy, the PCs former weapon?

Multiattack is specific to certain weapons sometimes… can monsters use other weapons not listed in its multiattack?

Using heavy weapons light weapons and monk

I have a question I’d hope someone can answer. I have the idea of going with 3 battle master and 8 Kensei. I want to use mainly my greatsword to attack, however, I have the idea of using a dagger as a kensei weapon to benefit from time to time from the +2 ac. In the future, I could use a venom dagger and well add and combine different features, since you need 2 hands to use a greatsword but not carry it, and I can have an interaction as a part of my action.

My question is: are scenarios possible?

A: Attack with dagger > sheath dagger as part of the action > attack with greatsword

B: 2 attacks with greatsword > unsheath dagger as part of the action (after the attacks)> use agile parry as bonus action > next turn > use action to poison dagger > action surge> 1 attack with dagger (while holding the greatsword on the other hand) > sheath dagger as part of the action > 1 attack with greatsword > flurry of blows as bonus action

How can I make weapons of differing quality?

I’m building a fantasy world for D&D 5th edition, in which different races have different crafting abilities – the human kingdom has a monopoly on the creation of magic items, but they’re trading with the dwarfs who have superior craftsmanship.

How can I represent the superior craftsmanship of, say, a dwarven-made sword versus a human-made sword?