What security concerns are there regarding website users inputting personal financial data without putting in personally identifying data?

I am a web developer, but I have only a rudimentary grasp of security, e.g., be careful to sanitize inputs, store as little user data as possible, encrypt passwords, keep up with security issues of libraries and packages, etc.

Today, I was approached by a client who does financial planning about replacing a spreadsheet he gives clients with a web-based form. The spreadsheet asks users to input certain financial data – e.g., current value of various investment accounts, business interests, etc. These numbers are put into a formula and a value is generated which is supposed to help the user decide whether the consulting could be useful to them.

The phone call was very short, and my questions focused on more mundane matters about user experience, desired UI elements, etc. No commitments have been made, and I’m analyzing the project to see if it’s something I can do. I began to think about potential security issues, and I realized I really don’t know where to start. So far it seems that client wants the form to be accessed via a magic link, and that the user would not enter any personally identifying information. I do not know yet whether my potential client wants to store the value generated, a simple dollar amount which is the ‘benefit’ the user could get by using the service. The impression I got is that my potential client simply wants to use this value as a motivator for clients to inquire further about his services.

My question is this: In this scenario, what security-related matters should I consider?

Thank you.

Can alchemists prepare alchemical items without reading their formula book?

The Pathfinder 2 alchemist class can prepare alchemical items if they have the item’s formula in their formula book. However, the class features never explicitly say that the alchemist needs to read the formula book, or have the formula book nearby, when crafting these items during their daily preparations.

You can use this feat to create alchemical items as long as you have the items’ formulas in your formula book.

… choose an alchemical item of your advanced alchemy level or lower that’s in your formula book …

You create a single alchemical item of your advanced alchemy level or lower that’s in your formula book…

The items you can select depend on your research field and must be in your formula book.

As a point of comparison, the wizard class explicitly requires that wizards must study their spellbook daily in order to prepare spells. So a wizard can’t feasibly go adventuring without it.

At 1st level, you can prepare up to two 1st-level spells and five cantrips each morning from the spells in your spellbook…

You start with a spellbook worth 10 sp or less, which you receive for free and must study to prepare your spells each day.

But the alchemist class has no such wording. Taken literally, this would mean that the alchemist can prepare items as long as (1) their formula book exists somewhere and (2) the item’s formula is written in the formula book. They could leave their 1-bulk formula book in a safe location and go adventuring without penalty.

In terms of rules-as-written, is this interpretation correct? Or do they need their formula book on hand during their daily preparations?

Step by step integration solution that shows where substitutions occur without using Wolfram Alpha

I know there is heaps of people’s code around the forum with code that shows step by step solutions for integration. But they don’t specify where certain things happen like substitution (u sub) or recognition by integration and stuff like that. Is there a code (has to work offline) that can show you what is being made (like u sub, simplify, expand, double angle…) for each step?

Given $n$ unique items and an $m^{th}$ normalised value, compute $m^{th}$ permutation without factorial expansion

We know that the number of permutations possible for $ n$ unique items is $ n!$ . We can uniquely label each permutation with a number from $ 0$ to $ (n!-1)$ .

Suppose if $ n=4$ , the possible permutations with their labels are,

0:  1234 1:  1243 2:  1324 3:  1342 4:  1432 5:  1423 6:  2134 7:  2143 8:  2314 9:  2341 10: 2431 11: 2413 12: 3214 13: 3241 14: 3124 15: 3142 16: 3412 17: 3421 18: 4231 19: 4213 20: 4321 21: 4312 22: 4132 23: 4123 

With any well defined labelling scheme, given a number $ m, 0 \leq m < n!$ , we can get back the permutation sequence. Further, these labels can be normalised to be between $ 0$ and $ 1$ . The above labels can be transformed into,

0:       1234 0.0434:  1243 0.0869:  1324 0.1304:  1342 0.1739:  1432 0.2173:  1423 0.2608:  2134 0.3043:  2143 0.3478:  2314 0.3913:  2341 0.4347:  2431 0.4782:  2413 0.5217:  3214 0.5652:  3241 0.6086:  3124 0.6521:  3142 0.6956:  3412 0.7391:  3421 0.7826:  4231 0.8260:  4213 0.8695:  4321 0.9130:  4312 0.9565:  4132 1:       4123 

Now, given $ n$ and $ m^{th}$ normalised label, can we get the $ m^{th}$ permutation while avoiding the expansion of $ n!$ ? For example, in the above set of permutations, if we were given the $ m^{th}$ normalised label to be $ 0.9$ , is it possible to get the closest sequence 4312 as the answer without computing $ 4!$ ?

Is there a way to deal damage to a target without them knowing?

I’m playing a sneaky Poison Dusk Lizardfolk who dabbles a lot in poisons. I want to use a blowgun to inflict poisons on my targets, but I don’t want them to know they’ve been damaged. Basically, imagine someone walking down the road, and then suddenly being paralyzed. I know there’s rules for "sniping," or making a ranged attack and then hiding, but that doesn’t stop the opponent from knowing they’ve been damaged. It just stops them from finding who did it.

What subfields in computer sciences may one study without learning Object Oriented Programming?

What subfields in computer sciences may one study without learning Object Oriented Programming or is there some kind of degree in Computer Science without the OOP knowledge requirement?

Is there a language without OOP?

Does one need to know OOP to simulate a CPU?

I wanted to earn a CS degree without ever learning OOP. Is there a name for that?

My guess what that Computer science without OOP is simply applied Statistics or Machine Learning using SKlearn and packages.

Can a Night Hag catch souls without Nightmare Haunting?

Every night hag possesses a Soul Bag which is described as follows (cf. MM, p.178).

Soul Bag: When an evil humanoid dies as a result of a night hag’s Nightmare Haunting, the hag catches the soul in this black sack made of stitched flesh. A soul bag can hold only one evil soul at a time, and only the night hag who crafted the bag can catch a soul with it. Crafting a soul bag takes 7 days and a humanoid sacrifice (whose flesh is used to make the bag).

I was wondering if a night hag can capture evil souls only through their Nightmare Haunting or if they know how to do so when any evil character dies in front of them for whatever reason.