What rules have been written for 5e D&D on Failing Forward?

I am looking for the rules in various 5e D&D books for allowing characters to add 1 or 2 points to their die-roll when they roll slightly too low. Searching Stack Exchange i found this, quoted from pg. 58 of the basic rules:

If the total equals or exceeds the DC, the ability check is a success—the creature overcomes the challenge at hand. Otherwise, it’s a failure, which means the character or monster makes no progress toward the objective or makes progress combined with a setback determined by the DM.

1. I could have sworn i found similar rules to the listed / above in the DMs guide years ago – cannot now. Sorry.

2. Unearthed Arcana may have new and brilliant quasi-rules on this. Cannot find it now.

3. Probably discussed already elsewhere on Stack Exchange. If so, please direct me there.

Where are the rules that allow a DM in 5e D&D to add a point or two on a failed d20 role (combat or not). Any rules. A tweet from His Royal Highness Crawford himself would be grand. It is also called ‘Success At A Cost’… perhaps.

Holding, Delaying, or Readying an Action? – Rules As Written [duplicate]

Please point or link me to any official rules (rules as written) on when a character can delay, hold or ready an action for later in a round, instead of going on their initiative.

What does a character have to do to delay or hold an action during a round?

What actions are characters allowed to take when they delay?

Are there any existing magical/artificial replacement arms written up?

So I lost my arm after shoving it into a cube and it getting cutoff… Honestly, I have been playing my character Wyn Wynn as a pretty straight forward Paladin of Lathander. I am new to the group I play with and the DM and players have given me credit and said I have been playing my character well and even like him as a character even if sometimes my character butts heads with one of the other characters. But now I want to stick out a bit and claim some glory for my own.

As I said I have just lost my arm, fun stuff truly but as luck would have it, we accepted a quest that if we clear out the tomb, we all get one wish. Now, assuming great Wyn Wynn the now one armed badass paladin lives, I was wondering: are there anything written about having an artificial limb or magical one in any of the official 5e D&D handbooks? I am hoping to wish myself a new arm that is magical or artificial. Not that my old Half-Elf arm wasn’t great, regrowing it just isn’t what I am looking for.

Do any published adventures contain spells a wizard can copy that aren’t written in a spellbook?

A wizard can copy a spell they find into their spellbook. This is described in the "Your Spellbook" section of the Wizard’s class features:

When you find a wizard spell of 1st level or higher, you can add it to your spellbook if it is of a spell level you can prepare and if you can spare the time to decipher and copy it.

Notably, it does not say "when you find a wizard spell in a spellbook". Are there any instances in published adventures where a wizard can copy a spell from something other than a spellbook?

I’m obviously not concerned about spell scrolls here. I’m looking for something like a spell written on a wall or stone tablet, or other surface that does not require a check like a spell scroll does.

This Q&A firmly establishes that the wizard can copy their spells from any written source, but I am not aware of any published examples of this outside of found spellbooks.

What language would be appropriate for texts to be written in about Thor (Forgotten Realms)?

In our LMoP campaign, there is a Cleric whose deity is Thor. He has come across several texts that discuss Thor (myths and religious texts).

What language would those texts most likely be written in?

(I don’t know if this is helpful context, but he is a Wood Elf).

Would Illuski (Nordic) languages be appropriate here?

Why are so many languages written using the Dwarvish script?

If you look at the list of Standard Languages, you’ll see that most of them use Dwarvish as their script:

  • Common: Common
  • Dwarvish: Dwarvish
  • Elvish: Elvish
  • Giant: Dwarvish
  • Gnomish: Dwarvish
  • Goblin: Dwarvish
  • Halfling: Common
  • Orc: Dwarvish

(While that’s 5e, I found a similar chart for 3e.)

The Forgotten Realms Wiki calls this script Dethek and explains some of its history, but I can’t see how the explanation there relates to the Standard Languages at all. I also know next to nothing about DnD in-universe history.

Is there an in-universe explanation for as to why these languages all use the same script?

I don’t particularly care where the explanation comes from as long as it is from some DnD canon where the premise is true. I don’t expect too many settings to have an explanation at all, which should keep this from being too broad.

Is there a way to learn what was written in a burned document?

I’m playing pathfinder and I just recovered the ashes of burned papers. The Dm told me make whole wouldn’t work because a big part of the paper went off in smoke and as such there isn’t all the parts. Is there any divination spell that could help me recover some information ? I have access to a good amount of gold and a fairly large city so I could pay a spellcaster to cast it if it is too high-level. I have neither access to the vilain and the document is probably a little too much damaged to use linguistics on

Local file inclusion in JS written app

I am working on a project which requires the name of the page as a query parameter ‘path’ and the app stores path variable as res.query.path, so I’m concerned about LFI because my manager asked me to pay attention to it specifically. The app is using JS(express) and no PHP, so my first question is if the input is not handled carefully is it still vulnerable to PHP wrappers? and secondly, I’ve written a small function to sanitize user input, please tell if it vulnerable in an environment where path parameter is being prepended using: function prepare(dir){ return path.resolve('./public/' + dir) } for getting absolute path. and then used as input to res.sendFile().The following code removes the first character if not alphanumeric

function strip(dir){ const regex = /^[a-z0-9]$  /im  if(!regex.test(dir[0])){     if(dir.length > 0){         return strip(dir.slice(1))     }     return '' }  return dir } 

To be on the safe side I’ve also added

//Prevent directory traversal attack function preventTraversal(dir){     if(dir.includes('../')){         let res = dir.replace('../', '')         return preventTraversal(res) }   //In case people want to test locally on windows if(dir.includes('..\')){     let res = dir.replace('..\', '')     return preventTraversal(res) } return dir } 

The app’s request flow goes like this:let path=req.query.path => uses path=strip(path) => path =preventTraversal(path) => res.sendFile(prepare(page))