Taxonomy list inside the query

Is it possible to get a list of the "terms of taxonomy" or "just used taxonomy types" defined within that archive without looking at all pages of an archive query in a loop?

What I mean is this:

Custom Taxonomy Types and their terms:

colors (red, green, orangge, yellow, pink) sizes (xs, sm, md, lg, xl) 

An archive an post_type:

posts found 100 per_page 10 

In this case, the posts in the archive may be matched to any term of any taxonomy type, or they may not contain any.

When we want to use these terms to filter, it is necessary to remove the terms that do not exist in the current archive query (100 posts).

To be more precise, considering that there are 1000s of posts and 1000s of terms, it will take up unnecessary space on the screen (negative user experience) and in fact no posts will appear when filtered.

The goal here is to get a list of term or just taxonomy types in the query with the query.

Is there a configurable setting for this? Or should a new SQL query be written? Please help me.