What routing does the telephone system of Europe use?

I am reading

Computer Networks 5th edition by Andrew S. Tanenbaum

and on page 141 it is stated that

“The U.S. telephone system used hierarchical routing to find a path, going to higher levels of the hierarchy until there was a switching office in common. This was then replaced with more flexible, nonhierarchical routing.”

Is the same kind of routing used in Europe or do they use another method to do the same job?