Is there more information on the spell Galder’s Tower available from previous editions?

I’m playing 5e, and planning my 3rd level spell acquisitions. I came across the spell Galder’s Tower. The spell description says:

You conjure a two-story tower made of stone, wood, or similar suitably sturdy materials.

It then goes on to describe a few more of the tower’s details such as how rooms are furnished and what happens when you upcast the spell. I’m wondering if this is a ‘new to 5e’ spell, and if it isn’t

Is there more information on the spell Galder’s Tower available from previous editions?

Notion of adjacent and natural reach for large creatures or more

The notion of a creature beeing “adjacent” to another seems in general to involve beeing in an adjacent 5-ft square. The only mention I found about this in the rules relates to melee attacks :

With a normal melee weapon, you can strike any opponent within 5 feet. (Opponents within 5 feet are considered adjacent to you.)

I wonder however if this definition is a standard case for medium size character, corresponding to their natural reach and then extends for larger creatures, or if this measure of 5ft step is set in stone.

As an example for my question, I have a Large character willing to use the feat Bodyguard to protect one ally who is 10ft from her. 10ft means the other character is in her natural reach and it would seem logical to me to allow the action of Bodyguard, but is really the ally considered adjacent ?

How can I be effective as a low level human magic-user in a boss battle against a more powerful magic-user?

First of all I’m a human magic-user level 2:

Except for the spell sleep and charm person and some other spells that were useful for X situation out of combat, (Enlarge person, Mount etc.)

I could not do much things, there’s no shops around for now because we’re out of town.

The only thing I have is a dagger and a sling (-5 to hit)

We are against flying birds humanoids and I killed 2 of them via the sleep spell (I used enlarge on our fighter earlier) because they were flying and they fell to their death, an NPC had a flying magic wings item and I took it to do so, luckily I was not as high in the air as the other enemies because my DM made the enemy magic-user (that we weren’t aware of) sleep on me and I lost 8 hit points (thanks to my cat familiar and constitution (and luck on HP roll) I have 15 HP), the enemy turned invisible and did some other tricks before turning invisible again, I (and my cat) could pinpoint where he is via superhearing, but I feel powerless since he went back in his tower and our party nearly died and we’re escorting lots of NPC and the enemy has 2 children that he kidnapped in his tower, most of the party is Chaotic Neutral but I’m Neutral good and our NPC healer is Loyal-Good, I think I have no choice but to abandon the poor children to their death (we’re not even sure that they are still alive).

There was still one bird left (15 to hit is required) so with my Sling 19-20 in my case (16 Dex)

The magic-user enemy is at least level 5…

Sleep is very powerful and as a human I guess the only thing that can protect me is my party and some future magic items/spells… unless I could learn some useful spells I’m not aware of…

Firefox: What would be more secure/private: storing session cookies or saving password in the browser?

I am wondering, assuming the latest version of Firefox, which of the following options would be more preferable security-wise (e.g. assess and/or password to user account will be stolen) and which one privacy-wise (exposing user to the least advertisement tracking etc.):

  1. Storing session cookies (i.e. logging in and never logging out), but not saving password & username in browser built-in Password Manager.
  2. Saving password & username in built-in Password Manager (without Master Password) and setting cookies and site data to be cleared when browser is closed.

P.S.: I am aware that using Master Password for password storage will increase security of the stored passwords. Though I am not wondering how to improve given options, but would like to asses them “as is”.

GSA not posting with the sites with PR more then zero

Hi, I have a hard time second day already – trying posting with the setup PR-1 – but in a hours GSA works and no one submission and verifying!!! Whats problem there, please clarify somebody. screenshot –
P.S. If I posting with PR-0 – everything is normally – posts appear. But for money site need good backlinks with high PR. Please help!

Are there more languages than functions?

My gut says “no”, but I don’t know why.

For any function $ f$ over strings on an alphabet, one can define a language in which every word is just the concatenation of a string $ s$ , a delimiter, and $ f(s)$ , or the empty string if $ f(s)$ is undefined. So there at least as many languages as functions. How can we define a function for every language? (Forgive my ignorance about languages, automata, etc. I have not studied in that area. Perhaps my question is poorly constrained.)

How to balance combat to make the Fighter more fun?

Our family game consists of fighter-rogue-cleric, playing through Dragon of Icespire Peak. The characters have reached L4 now. In combat the fighter does 1d6+3 damage per turn and the dual wielding rogue is doing 1d6+4 +2d6 +1d4.

Thanks to dexterity, the rogue gets missed a lot more than the fighter and the latter player has remarked a couple of times how combat is “not fun” or words to that effect.

I would like to design upcoming encounters that will de-emphasize the rogue as the superstar but not sure what options to consider, and would like some guidance from those who have trod this ground before me.

Turning VTM battles more dynamic

I’m playing a VTM 20th edition campaign with my friends, and they are really liking it, the only thing that is not great is the combat.

Sometimes the group battle just one or two enemies, and it’s fine, but now they are at war with the Sabbath, and the Camarilla is helping then in some battles, but then the combat turns into something like 10 versus 5, and then it gets a little boring, for me, because I’m controlling all the characters and for then, because they need to wait 10 actions to do something.

I know that one solution would be to just reduce the size of the battles, but battles of this size are really great for my storytelling at the moment, is there anything else I can do?