Unity settings and programs got messed up after fsck disk check

While doing my normal activity on my Ubuntu 16.04 (Unity) machine I noticed that Firefox stopped playing sounds from any tab (Applications tab in Sound Settings had something unknown to me listed several times and nothing else). Also the keyboard layout switching stopped working, while the indicator in the panel worked fine. I decided to reboot and after that saw the BusyBox prompt telling me that I had errors in my file system and needed to run fsck.
A similar thing happened to me about a year ago, but this time after running it on the specified drive and pressing y to every found error I typed reboot, logged back into my system and saw that the fonts are different from default and the theme switched back to Ambiance (from Radiance).
Nautilus changed it’s layout to (probably) non-patched gnome version, with nothing in the global menu. The ‘Recent’ folder returned despite still being turned off in the settings.
Image Viewer now has both global menu and local, under the title bar menu. Firefox got it’s icon changed to a folder.
Some programs wouldn’t start at all, including gedit and gnome-terminal. Running them in xterm outputs:

Failed to import the site module Traceback (most recent call last):   File "/usr/lib/python3.5/site.py", line 78, in <module>     import os   File "/usr/lib/python3.5/os.py", line 27, in <module>     import stat as st ImportError: No module named 'stat' 

Between some more reboots the fonts and the theme had partially changed to the selected, and then back again.
Each time after logging in the mouse buttons wouldn’t respect the settings (mine are set to RMB as primary), the settings page is correct, but after a while the screen goes black for a second and it is back to normal.

What may have caused this and how can I fix it? Thank you.

Sorry if something isn’t clear, I’m writing this late.

Additional, but possibly unrelated information:
Some strange bug causes my computer to turn on right after the shut-down. I dual-boot with Win7 and this only happens with Ubuntu, and only for the past 2 or so years. After a cursory search I was not able to find a solution to this and got used to turning it off from the back of the case right after it starts again.
During the last several months I had 3 times when my computer suddenly rebooted while I was doing something. I hadn’t yet investigated that.
The disk with Ubuntu is just ~45 gb and currently I work with mostly less than 400 mb on the ‘/home’ partition and 1.2 gb at ‘/’.
The hardware is also mostly more than 10 years old.

Terminal or some programs can’t open in Ubuntu 18.04

I recently updated & upgraded my Ubuntu 18.04. I think 3 days ago I had a serious issue with looping login (I could enter a password and then a black screen momentarily appeared – then I was prompted to re-enter a password). But it was finally fixed and perfectly fine now.

My problem now is that some of my programs cannot be practically opened in the Show Applications section. When I click a simple program, Terminal, it is buffering instead of opening and showing the application itself. However, the terminal can be opened through my files folder section. This seems not to be user-friendly, nor to be efficient.

I don’t know how to fix it. Same goes with my gnome-tweaks, which I cannot open. I also recently re-installed my Software Center because it was missing.

new to Ubuntu and trying to remove programs getting an error

Authentication is required to remove software Incorrect permissions on /usr/lib/policykit-1/polkit-agent-helper-1 (needs to be setuid root)

Guys… I’m the new kid on the block and picked up this laptop with Ubuntu 18 on it. It works great, but has SW on it I don’t need and want to remove. When I try to remove the SW, I get the error message above. How do I correct this? Any and all help is greatly appreciated. Thanks Jackhammer

Linear programs with strict inequalities and supremum objectives

Linear programming can solve only problems with weak inequalities, such as “maximize $ c x$ such that $ A x \leq b$ “. This makes sense, since problems with strict inequality often do not have a solution. For example “maximize $ x$ such that $ x<5$ ” does not have a solution.

But suppose we are interested in finding supremum instead of maximum. In this case, the above program does have a solution – the supremum is $ 5$ .

Given a linear program with strict inequalities and a supremum or infimum objective, is it possible to solve it by reduction to a standard linear program?

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Can Rust replace the C or C++ programs in the Future? [on hold]

I recently read an interesting Article that, due to a memory Overflow error Power system of Boeing will collapse and turns the Flight into a Flying Brick.

This is a low level memory Handling bug. Can this bug can be eliminated if use Programming Language like Rust. Since Rust Handles memory by Itself and It is close to hardware like C language.

Is there a corpus of “general” C programs?

I am studying the properties of control flow graphs (CFGs) in general. The tool that I use to statically extract CFGs and label them is based on LLVM. Now, I am looking for a large corpus of C/C++ programs (>= 100 programs) that could be used in experiments. There are basically only two requirements:

  • Programs should be easy to compile using clang. Preferably single file programs or simple make/cmake projects, and
  • the set of programs should represent multiple application domains.

Although, at this point, the first requirement is prioritized.

How to deal with duplicate features and/or redundant programs?

We have started trying to move toward CI and automation. There’s not a lot of cross-talk between teams, and I’ve discovered that many have developed simple or sophisticated build & test scripts, all in the same language (Python).

None of them have any mutual Git history or significant amount of copied code, but all implement at least a certain set of features (build a .sln, prep the target device, run built executable on the target device, etc).

We all have been taught the evils of duplicate code, but what about duplicate features and redundant programs?

Should I try to merge or re-use these scripts? There are a handful of them, so it seems daunting. How can I determine the cost/benefit?

If I do decide to merge/re-use, what are some good strategies or best practices for combining repos like this? I’m thinking maybe my best first step is to make one of them into a modular/generic library.